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Gene Review

hand2  -  heart and neural crest derivatives...

Danio rerio

Synonyms: Deciduum, heart, autonomic nervous system and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2, Heart-and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2, SO:0000704, dHAND, dhand, ...
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High impact information on hand2

  • Using the zebrafish hand2 deletion mutant hands off, we have now investigated the physiological role of hand2 in the development of sympathetic ganglia [1].
  • First we show that edn1-expressing cells in the first (mandibular) and second (hyoid) pharyngeal arch primordia are located most ventrally and surrounded by hand2-expressing cells [2].
  • In hand2 mutants, bapx1 expression is present at the joint region, and expanded ventrally [2].
  • In addition, expression of eng2, normally restricted to first arch dorsal mesoderm, expands ventrally in hand2 and edn1 mutants [2].
  • Studies of mutants with morphogenetic defects have indicated at least six genes that are essential for cardiac fusion and heart tube assembly, including casanova, bonnie and clyde, gata5, one-eyed pinhead, hand2, miles apart, and heart and soul [3].

Other interactions of hand2

  • Similar to edn1, hand2 is required for ventral pharyngeal cartilage formation [2].


  1. The bHLH transcription factor hand2 is essential for noradrenergic differentiation of sympathetic neurons. Lucas, M.E., M??ller, F., R??diger, R., Henion, P.D., Rohrer, H. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Two endothelin 1 effectors, hand2 and bapx1, pattern ventral pharyngeal cartilage and the jaw joint. Miller, C.T., Yelon, D., Stainier, D.Y., Kimmel, C.B. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cardiac patterning and morphogenesis in zebrafish. Yelon, D. Dev. Dyn. (2001) [Pubmed]
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