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Gene Review

COX2  -  cytochrome c oxidase subunit II

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on COX2

  • The content of the mitochondrially-encoded COXII subunit was reduced by ethanol exposure, while that of the nuclear-encoded COXIV subunit was unchanged [1].
  • Furthermore, using fluorescent double-labeling for COX-2 and SP, an increase in the number of small COX-2-containing neurons in contact with SP-containing elements was observed ipsilaterally (1.4-1.6-fold compared with the contralateral side) in lamina II [2].
  • Using electron microscopy, two types of SP-containing axon terminals were found to form synapses with COX-2-containing neurons in lamina II [2].
  • Fluorescence triple-labeling of COX-2, SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) confirmed that the majority of these SP-containing elements coexisted with CGRP, indicating that these elements originated from primary afferent neurons [2].

Associations of COX2 with chemical compounds

  • These results indicate that the number of COX-2-containing neurons increases concomitantly with an increase in the number of contacts of these neurons with SP-containing primary afferent fibers and suggest that this phenomenon is associated with PG production and the persistence of inflammatory pain [2].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of COX2

  • Immunohistochemistry using antibodies for COX-1 and COX-2 was used to localize protein expression of each isoform in a subset of tumor (n = 5) and normal samples (n = 6) [3].
  • Quantitative real-time PCR with Sybr Green was used to quantify the mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2, using 18S expression as an internal control for COX normalization [3].
  • The levels of nuclear-encoded (COXIV) and mitochondrial-encoded (COXII) subunit proteins were measured by Western blotting [1].


  1. Mitochondrial gene expression is impaired by ethanol exposure in cultured chick cardiac myocytes. Kennedy, J.M. Cardiovasc. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Cyclo-oxygenase-2-immunoreactive neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn in a chicken acute inflammation model. Yamada, S., Kawate, T., Sakamoto, H., Aoki, K., Hamada, Y., Atsumi, S. Anatomical science international / Japanese Association of Anatomists. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA and protein expression in the Gallus domesticus model of ovarian cancer. Urick, M.E., Johnson, P.A. Gynecol. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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