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Gene Review

MT-CO2  -  mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CO2, COII, COX2, COXII, Cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide II, ...
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Disease relevance of MT-CO2


Psychiatry related information on MT-CO2


High impact information on MT-CO2

  • Here, we developed a new genetic mouse model of selective COX2 inhibition using a gene-targeted point mutation, resulting in a Y385F substitution [10].
  • Among the more potent Abeta42-raising agents identified are fenofibrate, an antilipidemic agent, and celecoxib, a COX-2-selective NSAID [11].
  • We have sequenced a 5'-end proximal segment of the putative COII mRNA from HeLa cells of about 30 nucleotides and have aligned it with the COII coding sequence in human mtDNA [12].
  • Many of aspirin's therapeutic effects arise from its acetylation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), whereas its antithrombotic and ulcerogenic effects result from its acetylation of COX-1 [13].
  • CONTEXT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is often treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, or specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of MT-CO2


Biological context of MT-CO2


Anatomical context of MT-CO2


Associations of MT-CO2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of MT-CO2


Other interactions of MT-CO2

  • SCO1-deficient cells contained accumulated levels of the MTCO1.COX4.COX5A subassembly, suggesting that MTCO2 associates with the MTCO1.COX4.COX5A subassembly after the Cu(A) center of MTCO2 is formed [33].
  • In parallel, total RNA was extracted from samples of dissected heart and analyzed by Northern blot hybridization to determine the steady-state level of three RNA transcripts encoded by the COXII, COXIII, and COXIV genes [34].
  • Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II was reduced proportionally to COX I, indicating impairment in complex assembly [35].
  • The species range and the overall magnitude of this rate increase are similar to those previously identified for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and cytochrome b genes [36].
  • The activation of both ERK and PI3-K was essential for HRG regulation of COXII, i.e., blockage of either pathway eliminated HRG-mediated alteration [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MT-CO2

  • Total RNA was isolated using phenolchloroform, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using primers specific for OPG, RANKL, COX2, Cbfa1, and aldolase, with amplification in the exponential range for each molecule studied [38].
  • Despite the numerous studies on COX2 inhibitors that have emerged, drawing conclusions about their cardiovascular safety has been complicated by conflicting results, underpowered clinical trials, and the lack of a placebo group and use of post hoc analyses in many trials [39].
  • The production of COX2 and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and ELISA assay in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [25].
  • The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib is an approved drug in the clinic for colon cancer chemoprevention and has been tested for its chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy in various clinical trials [15].
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS), measured by flow cytometry, were increased by COX-2 overexpression in Saos-2 cells but not in HCT-116 cells [40].


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  2. Polymorphisms in prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2/COX2) and risk of colorectal cancer. Cox, D.G., Pontes, C., Guino, E., Navarro, M., Osorio, A., Canzian, F., Moreno, V. Br. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
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  4. Immunoexpression of multidrug-resistance protein 2 and cyclooxygenase 2 in medullary thyroid carcinomas. Ruggeri, R.M., Sciacchitano, S., Vitarelli, E., Trimarchi, F., Barresi, G., Trovato, M. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  8. Pharmacological and histopathological characterization of a hyperalgesia model induced by freeze lesion. Schmidtko, A., Burian, M., Altis, K., Hardt, K., Angioni, C., Schmidt, R., Podda, M., Geisslinger, G. Pain (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Intrathecal administration of a cylcooxygenase-1, but not a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, reverses the effects of laparotomy on exploratory activity in rats. Martin, T.J., Buechler, N.L., Eisenach, J.C. Anesth. Analg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic model of selective COX2 inhibition reveals novel heterodimer signaling. Yu, Y., Fan, J., Chen, X.S., Wang, D., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Campbell, R.L., FitzGerald, G.A., Funk, C.D. Nat. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Diverse compounds mimic Alzheimer disease-causing mutations by augmenting Abeta42 production. Kukar, T., Murphy, M.P., Eriksen, J.L., Sagi, S.A., Weggen, S., Smith, T.E., Ladd, T., Khan, M.A., Kache, R., Beard, J., Dodson, M., Merit, S., Ozols, V.V., Anastasiadis, P.Z., Das, P., Fauq, A., Koo, E.H., Golde, T.E. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The putative mRNA for subunit II of human cytochrome c oxidase starts directly at the translation initiator codon. Ojala, D.K., Montoya, J., Attardi, G. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Aspirin-like molecules that covalently inactivate cyclooxygenase-2. Kalgutkar, A.S., Crews, B.C., Rowlinson, S.W., Garner, C., Seibert, K., Marnett, L.J. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy of rofecoxib, celecoxib, and acetaminophen in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized trial. Geba, G.P., Weaver, A.L., Polis, A.B., Dixon, M.E., Schnitzer, T.J. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Cellular FLICE-Inhibitory Protein Down-regulation Contributes to Celecoxib-Induced Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer Cells. Liu, X., Yue, P., Sch??nthal, A.H., Khuri, F.R., Sun, S.Y. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression reduces apoptotic susceptibility by inhibiting the cytochrome c-dependent apoptotic pathway in human colon cancer cells. Sun, Y., Tang, X.M., Half, E., Kuo, M.T., Sinicrope, F.A. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of nicotine-induced cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression in human gingival fibroblasts. Ho, Y.C., Chang, Y.C. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Etoricoxib in the treatment of chronic pain. Duncan, M.R., Capell, H.A. International journal of clinical practice. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Suppresses {alpha}v{beta}6 Integrin-Dependent Oral Squamous Carcinoma Invasion. Nystrom, M.L., McCulloch, D., Weinreb, P.H., Violette, S.M., Speight, P.M., Marshall, J.F., Hart, I.R., Thomas, G.J. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Changing expression of cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin receptor EP4 during development of the human ductus arteriosus. Rheinlaender, C., Weber, S.C., Sarioglu, N., Strauss, E., Obladen, M., Koehne, P. Pediatr. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The decline in testosterone biosynthesis during male aging: a consequence of multiple alterations. Wang, X., Stocco, D.M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Gene expression profiling in the myelodysplastic syndromes using cDNA microarray technology. Pellagatti, A., Esoof, N., Watkins, F., Langford, C.F., Vetrie, D., Campbell, L.J., Fidler, C., Cavenagh, J.D., Eagleton, H., Gordon, P., Woodcock, B., Pushkaran, B., Kwan, M., Wainscoat, J.S., Boultwood, J. Br. J. Haematol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Cyclooxygenases in rat Leydig cells: effects of luteinizing hormone and aging. Chen, H., Luo, L., Liu, J., Zirkin, B.R. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. IL10 resistant PGS2 expression in at-risk/Type 1 diabetic human monocytes. Litherland, S.A., Xie, T.X., Grebe, K.M., Li, Y., Moldawer, L.L., Clare-Salzler, M.J. J. Autoimmun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Silica-ceramic suppresses the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages. Hwang, M., Park, K.K., Chang, Y.C., Choo, Y.A., Jeon, J.P., Shin, I.H., Lee, T.S. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Celecoxib inhibits interleukin-12 alphabeta and beta2 folding and secretion by a novel COX2-independent mechanism involving chaperones of the endoplasmic reticulum. Alloza, I., Baxter, A., Chen, Q., Matthiesen, R., Vandenbroeck, K. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. The future of targeted therapy: combining novel agents. Gianni, L. Oncology (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. A structural feature of N-[2-(cyclohexyloxy)-4-nitrophenyl] methanesulfonamide (NS-398) that governs its selectivity and affinity for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Huff, R., Collins, P., Kramer, S., Seibert, K., Koboldt, C., Gregory, S., Isakson, P. Inflamm. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. A polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the gene encoding prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 is not associated with an increase in breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study. Cox, D.G., Buring, J., Hankinson, S.E., Hunter, D.J. Breast Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
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  33. Cytochrome c oxidase subassemblies in fibroblast cultures from patients carrying mutations in COX10, SCO1, or SURF1. Williams, S.L., Valnot, I., Rustin, P., Taanman, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Structural and functional impairment of mitochondria in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy in mice: suppression of cytochrome c oxidase II gene expression. Papadopoulou, L.C., Theophilidis, G., Thomopoulos, G.N., Tsiftsoglou, A.S. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. In vivo regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in cells harboring a stop-codon mutation in mitochondrial DNA-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. D'Aurelio, M., Pallotti, F., Barrientos, A., Gajewski, C.D., Kwong, J.Q., Bruno, C., Beal, M.F., Manfredi, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Evolutionary rate acceleration of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I in simian primates. Andrews, T.D., Easteal, S. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Induction or suppression of expression of cytochrome C oxidase subunit II by heregulin beta 1 in human mammary epithelial cells is dependent on the levels of ErbB2 expression. Sun, Y., Lin, H., Zhu, Y., Ma, C., Ye, J., Luo, J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of enamel matrix derivative on bone-related mRNA expression in human periodontal ligament cells in vitro. Takayanagi, K., Osawa, G., Nakaya, H., Cochran, D.L., Kamoi, K., Oates, T.W. J. Periodontol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  40. Overexpression of COX-2 in human osteosarcoma cells decreases proliferation and increases apoptosis. Xu, Z., Choudhary, S., Voznesensky, O., Mehrotra, M., Woodard, M., Hansen, M., Herschman, H., Pilbeam, C. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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