The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

mt-Co2  -  cytochrome c oxidase II, mitochondrial

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AU019143, AU020223, COII, COX2, COXII, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of mt-Co2

  • In human skin carcinomas and corresponding early-stage cancer lesions, permanent COX-2 expression and activation is a consistent feature [1].
  • In skin epidermis, keratin 5 promoter-driven overexpression of COX-2 caused hyperplasia and dysplasia, and sensitized skin for carcinogenesis [1].
  • We present data suggesting that inhibiting COX-2 activity in vivo regulates IDO expression within the tumor microenvironment; this is further corroborated in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line [2].
  • We report that administration of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in combination with a dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine significantly augments vaccine efficacy in reducing primary tumor burden, preventing metastasis, and increasing survival [2].
  • Restoration of RAR-beta(2) inhibited growth and colony formation of esophageal cancer cells, which was correlated with COX-2 suppression [3].

Psychiatry related information on mt-Co2


High impact information on mt-Co2

  • Here, we developed a new genetic mouse model of selective COX2 inhibition using a gene-targeted point mutation, resulting in a Y385F substitution [5].
  • RESULTS: Aberrant expression of COX-2 in a few ductal cells and COX-2-mediated PG synthesis in the transgenic mice resulted in keratin 19- and mucin-positive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm- and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-like structures, characterized by an increased proliferation index and serous cystadenomas [6].
  • CONCLUSIONS: We present strong evidence for a causal relationship between aberrant COX-2 overexpression and COX-2-mediated PG synthesis and the development of serous cystadenoma, intraductal papillary mucinous, and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms [6].
  • Feeding a COX-2-selective inhibitor to the transgenic mice suppressed the accumulation of PG and the phenotype [6].
  • In the present studies we determined that chronic infusion of either hypertensive or nonhypertensive concentrations of angiotensin II attenuated cortical COX-2 [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of mt-Co2


Biological context of mt-Co2


Anatomical context of mt-Co2

  • AAA incidence and severity, together with the expression of inflammatory markers, were compared between abdominal aortas from COX-2-deficient mice and their wild-type littermate controls [17].
  • Abundant COX-2 protein expression was detected in medial smooth muscle cells adjacent to the AAAs [17].
  • Expression of COX-2 and hsp72 in peritoneal macrophages after an acute ochratoxin A treatment in mice [18].
  • This study was undertaken to examine whether CO can regulate (and if so, to delineate the mechanism by which CO regulates) LPS-induced COX-2 expression in macrophages [19].
  • IEC6 cells expressed mRNAs of 15-lipooxygenase (LOX15) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma but not COX-2 [20].

Associations of mt-Co2 with chemical compounds

  • The genetic deficiency of COX-2 also resulted in a 73% and 90% reduction in AAA incidence following 7 and 21 days of angiotensin II infusion, respectively [17].
  • The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of rofecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor) alone or in combination with newer antiepileptic drug tiagabine (gamma-amino acid reuptake inhibitor) against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (80 mg/kg, i. p.)-induced chemoconvulsions in mice [21].
  • In WT mice ARBs increased cortical COX-2 more than ACE inhibitors, and this stimulation was attenuated by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 [7].
  • Angiotensin II inhibited MMDD1 COX-2, and CGP42112A, an AT(2) receptor agonist, stimulated MMDD1 COX-2 [7].
  • Similarly, tumors of mice exposed to celecoxib showed significantly lower levels of COX-2 activity [15].

Other interactions of mt-Co2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of mt-Co2

  • Thus, a novel mechanism of COX-2-induced immunosuppression via regulation of IDO has emerged that may have implications in designing future cancer vaccines [2].
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor rofecoxib [4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-3-phenyl-2(5H)-furanone] could effectively prevent hippocampal neuronal injury in an animal model of excitotoxic neurodegeneration [24].
  • Oral administration of COX-2 inhibitor and S-1 significantly prolonged survival rates of these nude mice, compared with either alone [25].
  • We find that KA microinjection into the hemilateral hippocampus shows a later induction of COX-2 expression in non-neuronal cells, such as endothelial cells and astrocytes [26].
  • Western blot analysis confirmed that S100A2 reduced the expression of COX-2 protein in stably and transiently transfected KB and RPMI-2650 cells [27].


  1. Differential protein expression in the epidermis of wild-type and COX-2 transgenic mice. Müller-Decker, K., Furstenberger, G., Neumann, M., Schnolzer, M. Skin pharmacology and physiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor enhances the efficacy of a breast cancer vaccine: role of IDO. Basu, G.D., Tinder, T.L., Bradley, J.M., Tu, T., Hattrup, C.L., Pockaj, B.A., Mukherjee, P. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide through inhibition of retinoic acid receptor-beta 2 expression. Song, S., Lippman, S.M., Zou, Y., Ye, X., Ajani, J.A., Xu, X.C. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Cycloxygenase-2 activity promotes cognitive deficits but not increased amyloid burden in a model of Alzheimer's disease in a sex-dimorphic pattern. Melnikova, T., Savonenko, A., Wang, Q., Liang, X., Hand, T., Wu, L., Kaufmann, W.E., Vehmas, A., Andreasson, K.I. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic model of selective COX2 inhibition reveals novel heterodimer signaling. Yu, Y., Fan, J., Chen, X.S., Wang, D., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Campbell, R.L., FitzGerald, G.A., Funk, C.D. Nat. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Preinvasive duct-derived neoplasms in pancreas of keratin 5-promoter cyclooxygenase-2 transgenic mice. Müller-Decker, K., Fürstenberger, G., Annan, N., Kucher, D., Pohl-Arnold, A., Steinbauer, B., Esposito, I., Chiblak, S., Friess, H., Schirmacher, P., Berger, I. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Renal cortical cyclooxygenase 2 expression is differentially regulated by angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors. Zhang, M.Z., Yao, B., Cheng, H.F., Wang, S.W., Inagami, T., Harris, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. COX-2 is associated with cadmium-induced ICAM-1 expression in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. Seok, S.M., Park, D.H., Kim, Y.C., Moon, C.H., Jung, Y.S., Baik, E.J., Moon, C.K., Lee, S.H. Toxicol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. 9-cis-Retinoic acid inhibition of lung carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse model is accompanied by increased expression of RAR-beta but no change in cyclooxygenase-2. Mernitz, H., Smith, D.E., Zhu, A.X., Wang, X.D. Cancer Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 predisposes to podocyte injury. Cheng, H., Wang, S., Jo, Y.I., Hao, C.M., Zhang, M., Fan, X., Kennedy, C., Breyer, M.D., Moeckel, G.W., Harris, R.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. CRE-mediated transcription and COX-2 expression in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus. Lee, B., Dziema, H., Lee, K.H., Choi, Y.S., Obrietan, K. Neurobiol. Dis. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. The blockade of cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 reduces the effects of hypoxia on endothelial cells. Gloria, M.A., Cenedeze, M.A., Pacheco-Silva, A., Câmara, N.O. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning of cyclooxygenase-1b (putative COX-3) in mouse. Kis, B., Snipes, J.A., Gaspar, T., Lenzser, G., Tulbert, C.D., Busija, D.W. Inflamm. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Phosphorylation of Y845 on the epidermal growth factor receptor mediates binding to the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Boerner, J.L., Demory, M.L., Silva, C., Parsons, S.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Chemoprevention of familial adenomatous polyposis by low doses of atorvastatin and celecoxib given individually and in combination to APCMin mice. Swamy, M.V., Patlolla, J.M., Steele, V.E., Kopelovich, L., Reddy, B.S., Rao, C.V. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Acetaminophen modifies hippocampal synaptic plasticity via a presynaptic 5-HT2 receptor. Chen, C., Bazan, N.G. Neuroreport (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic deficiency of cyclooxygenase-2 attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in mice. Gitlin, J.M., Trivedi, D.B., Langenbach, R., Loftin, C.D. Cardiovasc. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of COX-2 and hsp72 in peritoneal macrophages after an acute ochratoxin A treatment in mice. Ferrante, M.C., Bilancione, M., Raso, G.M., Esposito, E., Iacono, A., Zaccaroni, A., Meli, R. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein mediates carbon monoxide-induced suppression of cyclooxygenase-2. Suh, G.Y., Jin, Y., Yi, A.K., Wang, X.M., Choi, A.M. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibitory effect of linoleic acid on transformation of IEC6 intestinal cells by in vitro azoxymethane treatment. Sasaki, T., Yoshida, K., Shimura, H., Ichiba, M., Sasahira, T., Shimomoto, T., Denda, A., Kuniyasu, H. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor potentiates the anticonvulsant activity of tiagabine against pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice. Dhir, A., Kulkarni, S.K. Inflammopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Amounts of mitochondrial DNA and abundance of some mitochondrial gene transcripts in early mouse embryos. Pikó, L., Taylor, K.D. Dev. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased sensitivity to excitotoxicity in mice deficient in DNA mismatch repair. Francisconi, S., Codenotti, M., Toninelli, G.F., Uberti, D., Memo, M. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Oral treatment with rofecoxib reduces hippocampal excitotoxic neurodegeneration. Hewett, S.J., Silakova, J.M., Hewett, J.A. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. A synergic inhibitory-effect of combination with selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and S-1 on the peritoneal metastasis for scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Tendo, M., Yashiro, M., Nakazawa, K., Yamada, N., Sawada, T., Ohira, M., Hirakawa, K. Cancer Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Prostaglandin E(2) produced by late induced COX-2 stimulates hippocampal neuron loss after seizure in the CA3 region. Takemiya, T., Maehara, M., Matsumura, K., Yasuda, S., Sugiura, H., Yamagata, K. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Cyclooxygenase-2 is involved in S100A2-mediated tumor suppression in squamous cell carcinoma. Tsai, W.C., Tsai, S.T., Jin, Y.T., Wu, L.W. Mol. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities