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Gene Review

SEP4  -  protein SEPALLATA 4

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: AGAMOUS-like 3, AGL3, F19B11.16, F19B11_16, MADS BOX PROTEIN, ...
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Disease relevance of SEP4


High impact information on SEP4

  • The vernalization and autonomous pathways converge on the negative regulation of FLC, a gene encoding a MADS-box protein that inhibits flowering [2].
  • Sampling of DEF/AP3 homologs revealed two types of DEF/AP3 proteins, euAP3 and TOMATO MADS BOX GENE6 (TM6), within core eudicots, and we show functional divergence in Petunia hybrida euAP3 and TM6 proteins [3].
  • Although sep4 single mutants display a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants, we find that floral organs are converted into leaf-like organs in sep1 sep2 sep3 sep4 quadruple mutants, indicating the involvement of all four SEP genes in the development of sepals [4].
  • The DEFH125 protein shows extensive similarity over the entire length to AGL17, a root-specific MADS-box protein of Arabidopsis [5].
  • Here the analysis of three APETALA1 (AP1)-like MADS box proteins (LpMADS1-3) and a SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)-like MADS box protein (LpMADS10) from the monocot perennial grass species Lolium perenne is reported [6].

Biological context of SEP4

  • To obtain insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of LpMADS1 gene expression in vernalization-sensitive and -insensitive Lolium accessions, the upstream sequences of this gene from a winter and spring growth habit variety were compared with respect to MADS box protein binding [6].

Other interactions of SEP4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SEP4


  1. The Arabidopsis MADS-box gene AGL3 is widely expressed and encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Huang, H., Tudor, M., Weiss, C.A., Hu, Y., Ma, H. Plant Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of flowering time by FVE, a retinoblastoma-associated protein. Ausín, I., Alonso-Blanco, C., Jarillo, J.A., Ruiz-García, L., Martínez-Zapater, J.M. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis of the Petunia TM6 MADS box gene reveals functional divergence within the DEF/AP3 lineage. Rijpkema, A.S., Royaert, S., Zethof, J., van der Weerden, G., Gerats, T., Vandenbussche, M. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The SEP4 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana functions in floral organ and meristem identity. Ditta, G., Pinyopich, A., Robles, P., Pelaz, S., Yanofsky, M.F. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Pollen-specific expression of DEFH125, a MADS-box transcription factor in Antirrhinum with unusual features. Zachgo, S., Saedler, H., Schwarz-Sommer, Z. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Protein interactions of MADS box transcription factors involved in flowering in Lolium perenne. Ciannamea, S., Kaufmann, K., Frau, M., Tonaco, I.A., Petersen, K., Nielsen, K.K., Angenent, G.C., Immink, R.G. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The molecular basis of vernalization: the central role of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Sheldon, C.C., Rouse, D.T., Finnegan, E.J., Peacock, W.J., Dennis, E.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of a tobacco MADS-box gene homologous to AGL2. Chung, Y.Y., Lee, K.J., An, G. Mol. Cells (1998) [Pubmed]
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