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Gene Review

ERF1  -  ethylene-responsive transcription factor 1B

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATERF1, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR 1, ethylene response factor 1
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Disease relevance of ATERF1/ERF1


High impact information on ATERF1/ERF1

  • Evidence is also provided that ERF1 acts downstream of EIN3 and all other components of the ethylene signaling pathway [2].
  • These results suggest that ERF1 acts downstream of the intersection between ethylene and jasmonate pathways and suggest that this transcription factor is a key element in the integration of both signals for the regulation of defense response genes [1].
  • Regulation of disease resistance pathways by AP2/ERF transcription factors [3].
  • Some ERF subgroups are enriched in such genes, suggesting that they have conserved functions that are required for the regulation of disease resistance pathways [3].
  • Their homologous sequences were found in AAK92635 from rice and RAP2.2 from Arabidopsis; the ERF proteins most closely related to HvRAF, reflecting their functional importance [4].

Biological context of ATERF1/ERF1

  • In addition to the most highly conserved APETALA2/ERF DNA-binding domain, the encoded protein contained an N-terminal MCGGAIL signature sequence, a putative nuclear localization sequence, and a C-terminal acidic transcription activation domain containing a novel mammalian hemopexin domain signature-like sequence [4].
  • Expression of ERF1 was upregulated after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans, and this response was blocked in ein2-5 and coi1-1 mutants, impaired in the ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) signal pathways, respectively, which further indicates that ERF1 is a downstream component of ET and JA defense responses [5].

Associations of ATERF1/ERF1 with chemical compounds

  • The maize dehydration-responsive element (DRE)-binding factor, DBF1, is a member of the Apetala 2/Ethylene Response Factor transcription factors family and is involved in the regulation of the ABA-responsive gene rab17 through the DRE in an ABA-dependent pathway [6].

Other interactions of ATERF1/ERF1

  • Moreover, we identified an immediate target of EIN3, ETHYLENE-RESPONSE-FACTOR1 (ERF1), which contains this element in its promoter [2].
  • A large number of ethylene-regulated genes have been identified, including the APETALA2 domain-containing transcription factor genes ERF1 and EDF1 to 4, which suggests the participation of a transcriptional cascade in the ethylene response [7].


  1. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 integrates signals from ethylene and jasmonate pathways in plant defense. Lorenzo, O., Piqueras, R., Sánchez-Serrano, J.J., Solano, R. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Nuclear events in ethylene signaling: a transcriptional cascade mediated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 and ETHYLENE-RESPONSE-FACTOR1. Solano, R., Stepanova, A., Chao, Q., Ecker, J.R. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of disease resistance pathways by AP2/ERF transcription factors. Gutterson, N., Reuber, T.L. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The barley ERF-type transcription factor HvRAF confers enhanced pathogen resistance and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Jung, J., Won, S.Y., Suh, S.C., Kim, H., Wing, R., Jeong, Y., Hwang, I., Kim, M. Planta (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Ethylene response factor 1 mediates Arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Berrocal-Lobo, M., Molina, A. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Maize DBF1-interactor protein 1 containing an R3H domain is a potential regulator of DBF1 activity in stress responses. Saleh, A., Lumbreras, V., Lopez, C., Kizis, E.D., Pagès, M. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Ethylene signaling pathway. Stepanova, A.N., Alonso, J.M. Sci. STKE (2005) [Pubmed]
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