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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L9DYW     5-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2,6,6- trimethyl-4-oxo-1...

Synonyms: NCIStruc1_000660, NCIStruc2_000654
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Disease relevance of C11060

  • Genetic analysis shows that abi5-4 is epistatic to afp-1, indicating the ABA hypersensitivity of afp mutants requires ABI5 [1].
  • RNA gel blot analysis revealed that transcription of the rd22BP1 gene is induced by dehydration stress and ABA treatment, and its induction precedes that of rd22 [2].
  • A 50-base pair sequence (-152 to -103) fused 5' in either orientation to a truncated cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (35S) increases GUS activity threefold in the presence of ABA [3].
  • In an effort to identify the components of transduction pathways in aleurone cells, we have investigated the effect of okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase inhibitor, on stimulus-response coupling for GA, ABA, and hypoxia [4].
  • We performed a prospective randomized trial of antithoracic duct lymphocyte globulin (ATDLG), HLA-haploidentical marrow, and androgen (regimen ABA) versus androgen alone (concurrent STANDARD care controls) in 42 newly diagnosed individuals with severe aplastic anemia [5].

Psychiatry related information on C11060

  • Following identical acquisition, group ABA (n = 16) was extinguished to a generalization stimulus (GS), whereas group AAB (n = 20) was extinguished to the conditioned stimulus (CS) [6].
  • Mice were immunized with a T-independent (TI) form of ABA (ABA-Brucella abortus) and apparent Id selectivity was observed; the earliest IgG PFC averaged 75% CRI+ while IgM PFC were only 39% CRI+ [7].
  • In conclusion, handling seems to have a direct effect on rats' later response to either food deprivation alone or to an ABA procedure [8].
  • Our results showed a higher reaction time and error rate in ABA sequences than in CBA sequences, indicating n - 2 repetition cost as a marker for persisting task inhibition [9].
  • As part of an ongoing, prospective, ABA design, double-blind crossover study of risperidone versus placebo for the treatment of aggressive, destructive and self-injurious behavior in persons aged 6-65 years with mental retardation (MR) and autism, we measured the weight of 19 subjects at each study visit [10].

High impact information on C11060

  • The NP and ABA suppressor-cell pathways consist of multiple cellular elements, including at least three and possibly four distinct T-cell populations and two or more distinctive accessory cell populations [11].
  • Loss of AtBG1 causes defective stomatal movement, early germination, abiotic stress-sensitive phenotypes, and lower ABA levels, whereas plants with ectopic AtBG1 accumulate higher ABA levels and display enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress [12].
  • Thus, ABH1 represents a modulator of ABA signaling proposed to function by transcript alteration of early ABA signaling elements [13].
  • Moreover, activation of Ca2+ channels by H2O2 and ABA- and H2O2-induced stomatal closing are disrupted in the recessive ABA-insensitive mutant gca2 [14].
  • ABA triggers an increase in cytosolic calcium in guard cells ([Ca2+]cyt) that has been proposed to include Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of C11060

  • T-DNA insertion mutants of annAt1 and a different isoform, annAt4, displayed hypersensitivity to osmotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) during germination and early seedling growth [15].
  • Here, we show that KEG is a negative regulator of ABA signaling. keg roots are extremely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of ABA and exhibit hypersensitivity to exogenous glucose, consistent with the known interaction between glucose and ABA signaling [16].
  • Oligonucleotide tetramers of several G-box sequences, including Em1a, Em1b, and the dyad G-box element from the UV light-regulated parsley chalcone synthase gene, were sufficient to confer VP1 transactivation and the synergistic interaction with ABA to the -45 cauliflower mosaic virus 35S core promoter [17].
  • These cells suppressed the effector phase of the delayed hypersensitivity response to ABA but not to oxazolone [18].
  • The Gal-reactive lectin from Ricinus communis (RCAI), the Gal/GalNAc-reactive lectins from R. communis (RCAII) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), as well as the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-specific lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Agaricus bisporus (ABA) inhibited killing of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 by sialidase-treated PMNs [19].

Biological context of C11060


Anatomical context of C11060

  • ABA treatment induced inactivation of AtRac GTPases and disruption of the guard cell actin cytoskeleton [25].
  • This insensitivity of endosperm tissues is not specific to lipid breakdown because hydrolysis of the seed coat cell walls also proceeded in the presence of concentrations of ABA that effectively inhibit radicle emergence [26].
  • (iii) Application of ABA to the cytosol of Vicia faba L. guard-cell protoplasts via patch-clamp techniques inhibits inward K+ currents, an effect sufficient to inhibit stomatal opening [27].
  • Because [Ca(2+)](i) increases are voltage-sensitive, we suspected a Ca(2+) channel at the guard cell plasma membrane that activates on hyperpolarization and is regulated by ABA [28].
  • Depolarization of the membrane terminated both repetitive elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ and inward-directed ion currents, suggesting that ABA-mediated Ca2+ transients were produced by passive influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space through Ca2(+)-permeable channels [29].

Associations of C11060 with other chemical compounds

  • Thus, ABI4 might be a regulator involved in both glucose- and seed-specific ABA signaling [30].
  • We suggest that VP1 activates C1 specifically during maturation by interacting with one or more ABA-regulated transcription factors [24].
  • Glc antagonizes ethylene signaling by activating ABA2/GIN1 and other abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling genes, which requires Glc and ABA synergistically [31].
  • These results suggest that ATGPX3 might play dual and distinctive roles in H(2)O(2) homeostasis, acting as a general scavenger and specifically relaying the H(2)O(2) signal as an oxidative signal transducer in ABA and drought stress signaling [32].
  • Calcium imaging analyses show a reduced sensitivity of ABA-induced cytosolic calcium increases in rcn1, whereas mechanisms downstream of cytosolic calcium increases show wild-type responses, suggesting that RCN1 functions in ABA signal transduction upstream of cytosolic Ca(2+) increases [33].

Gene context of C11060

  • Arabidopsis ABA response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase [34].
  • We found that Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring transferred DNA insertional mutations in the sole prototypical heterotrimeric GTP-binding (G) protein alpha subunit gene, GPA1, lack both ABA inhibition of guard cell inward K(+) channels and pH-independent ABA activation of anion channels [35].
  • ATHB6 recognizes a cis-element present in its promoter, which encompasses the core motif (CAATTATTA) that mediated ATHB6- and ABA-dependent gene expression in protoplasts [36].
  • Thus, the homologous ABI1 and ABI2 phosphatases appear to assume partially redundant functions in ABA signaling, which may provide a mechanism to maintain informational homeostasis [37].
  • These results suggest that OST1 acts in the interval between ABA perception and ROS production [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C11060

  • DNA chip analyses show that only a few transcripts are down-regulated in abh1, several of which are implicated in ABA signaling [13].
  • If H2O2 production is blocked, ABA-induced closure of stomata is inhibited [14].
  • Bioassay experiments showed that the amounts of cADPR in Arabidopsis thaliana plants increased in response to ABA treatment and before ABA-induced gene expression [21].
  • Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that recombinant ZmABI4 protein binds to the CE1 element in a number of ABA-related genes [39].
  • These data show that RCN1 functions as a general positive transducer of early ABA signaling [33].


  1. AFP is a novel negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes ABI5 protein degradation. Lopez-Molina, L., Mongrand, S., Kinoshita, N., Chua, N.H. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of arabidopsis MYC and MYB homologs in drought- and abscisic acid-regulated gene expression. Abe, H., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Urao, T., Iwasaki, T., Hosokawa, D., Shinozaki, K. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Abscisic acid-responsive sequences from the em gene of wheat. Marcotte, W.R., Russell, S.H., Quatrano, R.S. Plant Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, blocks calcium changes, gene expression, and cell death induced by gibberellin in wheat aleurone cells. Kuo, A., Cappelluti, S., Cervantes-Cervantes, M., Rodriguez, M., Bush, D.S. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Antithoracic duct lymphocyte globulin therapy of severe aplastic anemia. Camitta, B., O'Reilly, R.J., Sensenbrenner, L., Rappeport, J., Champlin, R., Doney, K., August, C., Hoffmann, R.G., Kirkpatrick, D., Stuart, R., Santos, G., Parkman, R., Gale, R.P., Storb, R., Nathan, D. Blood (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Generalization of extinguished skin conductance responding in human fear conditioning. Vervliet, B., Vansteenwegen, D., Eelen, P. Learn. Mem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Idiotypic properties of the murine anti-arsonate antibody response: B- and T-cell influences. Conger, J.D., Lewis, G.K., Goodman, J.W. Cell. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Early handling reduces vulnerability of rats to activity-based anorexia. Carrera, O., Guti??rrez, E., Boakes, R.A. Developmental psychobiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Switching of response modalities. Philipp, A.M., Koch, I. The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Weight gain in a controlled study of risperidone in children, adolescents and adults with mental retardation and autism. Hellings, J.A., Zarcone, J.R., Crandall, K., Wallace, D., Schroeder, S.R. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Suppressor cells and immunoregulation. Dorf, M.E., Benacerraf, B. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation of Glucosidase via Stress-Induced Polymerization Rapidly Increases Active Pools of Abscisic Acid. Lee, K.H., Piao, H.L., Kim, H.Y., Choi, S.M., Jiang, F., Hartung, W., Hwang, I., Kwak, J.M., Lee, I.J., Hwang, I. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. An mRNA cap binding protein, ABH1, modulates early abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Hugouvieux, V., Kwak, J.M., Schroeder, J.I. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells. Pei, Z.M., Murata, Y., Benning, G., Thomine, S., Klüsener, B., Allen, G.J., Grill, E., Schroeder, J.I. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Proteomic identification of annexins, calcium-dependent membrane binding proteins that mediate osmotic stress and abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Lee, S., Lee, E.J., Yang, E.J., Lee, J.E., Park, A.R., Song, W.H., Park, O.K. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. KEEP ON GOING, a RING E3 Ligase Essential for Arabidopsis Growth and Development, Is Involved in Abscisic Acid Signaling. Stone, S.L., Williams, L.A., Farmer, L.M., Vierstra, R.D., Callis, J. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Overlap of Viviparous1 (VP1) and abscisic acid response elements in the Em promoter: G-box elements are sufficient but not necessary for VP1 transactivation. Vasil, V., Marcotte, W.R., Rosenkrans, L., Cocciolone, S.M., Vasil, I.K., Quatrano, R.S., McCarty, D.R. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of suppressor T cells by monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody in strains of mice not expressing the idiotope in hyperimmune serum. Thomas, W.R., Morahan, G., Miller, J.F. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Putative glycoprotein and glycolipid polymorphonuclear leukocyte receptors for the Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 fimbrial lectin. Sandberg, A.L., Ruhl, S., Joralmon, R.A., Brennan, M.J., Sutphin, M.J., Cisar, J.O. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. A plant leucine zipper protein that recognizes an abscisic acid response element. Guiltinan, M.J., Marcotte, W.R., Quatrano, R.S. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Abscisic acid signaling through cyclic ADP-ribose in plants. Wu, Y., Kuzma, J., Maréchal, E., Graeff, R., Lee, H.C., Foster, R., Chua, N.H. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Abscisic acid signaling. Giraudat, J. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. FIERY1 encoding an inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase is a negative regulator of abscisic acid and stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Xiong, L., Lee Bh, n.u.l.l., Ishitani, M., Lee, H., Zhang, C., Zhu, J.K. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. The Viviparous-1 gene and abscisic acid activate the C1 regulatory gene for anthocyanin biosynthesis during seed maturation in maize. Hattori, T., Vasil, V., Rosenkrans, L., Hannah, L.C., McCarty, D.R., Vasil, I.K. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Inactivation of AtRac1 by abscisic acid is essential for stomatal closure. Lemichez, E., Wu, Y., Sanchez, J.P., Mettouchi, A., Mathur, J., Chua, N.H. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Reserve mobilization in the Arabidopsis endosperm fuels hypocotyl elongation in the dark, is independent of abscisic acid, and requires PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE CARBOXYKINASE1. Penfield, S., Rylott, E.L., Gilday, A.D., Graham, S., Larson, T.R., Graham, I.A. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Inhibition of inward K+ channels and stomatal response by abscisic acid: an intracellular locus of phytohormone action. Schwartz, A., Wu, W.H., Tucker, E.B., Assmann, S.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Ca2+ channels at the plasma membrane of stomatal guard cells are activated by hyperpolarization and abscisic acid. Hamilton, D.W., Hills, A., Kohler, B., Blatt, M.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Repetitive increases in cytosolic Ca2+ of guard cells by abscisic acid activation of nonselective Ca2+ permeable channels. Schroeder, J.I., Hagiwara, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Analysis of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive mutants, gin5 and gin6, reveals a central role of the plant hormone ABA in the regulation of plant vegetative development by sugar. Arenas-Huertero, F., Arroyo, A., Zhou, L., Sheen, J., León, P. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. A unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Arabidopsis glucose signaling and abscisic acid biosynthesis and functions. Cheng, W.H., Endo, A., Zhou, L., Penney, J., Chen, H.C., Arroyo, A., Leon, P., Nambara, E., Asami, T., Seo, M., Koshiba, T., Sheen, J. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. An Arabidopsis glutathione peroxidase functions as both a redox transducer and a scavenger in abscisic Acid and drought stress responses. Miao, Y., Lv, D., Wang, P., Wang, X.C., Chen, J., Miao, C., Song, C.P. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Disruption of a guard cell-expressed protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit, RCN1, confers abscisic acid insensitivity in Arabidopsis. Kwak, J.M., Moon, J.H., Murata, Y., Kuchitsu, K., Leonhardt, N., DeLong, A., Schroeder, J.I. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Arabidopsis ABA response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase. Leung, J., Bouvier-Durand, M., Morris, P.C., Guerrier, D., Chefdor, F., Giraudat, J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. G protein regulation of ion channels and abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis guard cells. Wang, X.Q., Ullah, H., Jones, A.M., Assmann, S.M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Homeodomain protein ATHB6 is a target of the protein phosphatase ABI1 and regulates hormone responses in Arabidopsis. Himmelbach, A., Hoffmann, T., Leube, M., Höhener, B., Grill, E. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. The Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) and ABI1 genes encode homologous protein phosphatases 2C involved in abscisic acid signal transduction. Leung, J., Merlot, S., Giraudat, J. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Arabidopsis OST1 protein kinase mediates the regulation of stomatal aperture by abscisic acid and acts upstream of reactive oxygen species production. Mustilli, A.C., Merlot, S., Vavasseur, A., Fenzi, F., Giraudat, J. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Maize ABI4 binds coupling element1 in abscisic acid and sugar response genes. Niu, X., Helentjaris, T., Bate, N.J. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
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