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Gene Review

KCS1  -  3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: T25K16.11, T25K16_11
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High impact information on KCS1

  • Gene expression analysis indicated that a number of genes, such as CER1, KCS1, and CER2, which are known to be involved in wax biosynthesis, were induced in WIN1 overexpressors [1].
  • An Arabidopsis fatty acid elongase gene, KCS1, with a high degree of sequence identity to FAE1, encodes a 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase which is involved in very long chain fatty acid synthesis in vegetative tissues, and which also plays a role in wax biosynthesis [2].
  • Complete loss of KCS1 expression resulted in decreases of up to 80% in the levels of C26 to C30 wax alcohols and aldehydes, but much smaller effects were observed on the major wax components, i.e. the C29 alkanes and C29 ketones on leaves, stems and siliques [2].
  • Furthermore, since alcohol, aldehyde, alkane and ketone levels were affected to varying degrees, involvement of the KCS1 synthase in both the decarbonylation and acyl-reduction wax synthesis pathways was demonstrated [2].
  • EXO overexpression under the control of the 35SCaMV promoter resulted in increased transcript levels of the BR-up-regulated KCS1, Exp5, delta-TIP, and AGP4 genes, which likely are involved in the mediation of BR-promoted growth [3].

Biological context of KCS1

  • At1g01120 KCS (KCS1) and At2g26640 KCS had broad substrate specificities when assayed with saturated and mono-unsaturated C16 to C24 acyl-CoAs while At4g34510 KCS was specific for saturated fatty acyl-CoA substrates [4].
  • Alignment of the amino acid sequences of FAE1 KCS, KCS1, and five other putative elongase condensing enzymes (KCSs) revealed the presence of six conserved cysteine and four conserved histidine residues [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KCS1

  • Sequence analysis of KCS1 predicted that this synthase was anchored to a membrane by two adjacent N-terminal, membrane-spanning domains [2].


  1. WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis. Broun, P., Poindexter, P., Osborne, E., Jiang, C.Z., Riechmann, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. KCS1 encodes a fatty acid elongase 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase affecting wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Todd, J., Post-Beittenmiller, D., Jaworski, J.G. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. EXORDIUM regulates brassinosteroid-responsive genes. Coll-Garcia, D., Mazuch, J., Altmann, T., Müssig, C. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Substrate specificity of Arabidopsis 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases. Blacklock, B.J., Jaworski, J.G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Active-site residues of a plant membrane-bound fatty acid elongase beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, FAE1 KCS. Ghanevati, M., Jaworski, J.G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
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