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Gene Review

CTR3  -  Ctr3p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Copper transport protein CTR3, Copper transporter 3, L9931.6, YLR411W
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High impact information on CTR3

  • In such strains inactivation of both CTR1 and CTR3 is required to generate lethal copper-deficient phenotypes [1].
  • Upon addition of CuSO4, mRNA levels of CTR3 were rapidly reduced to eightfold the original basal level whereas the Ace1p-mediated transcriptional activation of CUP1 was rapid and potent but transient [2].
  • Although Ctr1 and Ctr3 are functionally redundant, they bear little homology at the amino acid sequence level [3].
  • Unlike Ctr1, the Ctr3 transporter is neither regulated at the level of protein degradation nor endocytosis as a function of elevated copper levels [3].
  • Ctr3 is an integral membrane protein that assembles as a trimer to form a competent copper uptake permease at the plasma membrane [3].

Biological context of CTR3


Associations of CTR3 with chemical compounds

  • Although copper represses CTR3 gene expression at picomolar metal concentrations, cadmium and mercury down-regulate CTR3 expression only at concentrations 3 orders magnitude greater [4].
  • Ctr3p is a small intracellular cysteine-rich integral membrane protein that restores high-affinity Cu uptake, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity, ferrous iron transport, and respiratory proficiency to strains lacking the CTR1 (Cu transporter 1) gene [1].

Other interactions of CTR3

  • Under copper-limiting conditions, yeast cells harbouring deletions of the MAC1, CTR1 and CTR3 genes were defective in amine oxidase activity [5].
  • These include the FRE1-encoded Cu2+/Fe3+ reductase and the CTR1 and CTR3-encoded membrane-associated copper transport proteins [4].
  • Inaddition to Ctrlp, Ctr2p, Ctr3p and Fet4p, other metal transport systems can act as upstream donors of copper for the metallochaperones when copper availability in the medium is increased [6].


  1. A widespread transposable element masks expression of a yeast copper transport gene. Knight, S.A., Labbé, S., Kwon, L.F., Kosman, D.J., Thiele, D.J. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Dynamic regulation of copper uptake and detoxification genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Peña, M.M., Koch, K.A., Thiele, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high affinity copper transporter Ctr3. Pena, M.M., Puig, S., Thiele, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Copper-specific transcriptional repression of yeast genes encoding critical components in the copper transport pathway. Labbé, S., Zhu, Z., Thiele, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Mechanisms of copper loading on the Schizosaccharomyces pombe copper amine oxidase 1 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Laliberté, J., Labbé, S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Metal transporters that contribute copper to metallochaperones in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Portnoy, M.E., Schmidt, P.J., Rogers, R.S., Culotta, V.C. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
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