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Gene Review

REF2  -  Ref2p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: RNA end formation protein 2, YD9346.06, YDR195W
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High impact information on REF2

  • Pti1p and Ref2p found in association with the mRNA 3' end formation complex direct snoRNA maturation [1].
  • Kinetic analyses of the respective polyadenylation reactions indicated that Pbp1p is a negative regulator of poly(A) nuclease (PAN) activity and that Fir1p and Ref2p are, respectively, a positive regulator and a negative regulator of poly(A) synthesis [2].
  • Overexpression of Ref2, a protein previously implicated in snoRNA 3' end formation and Swd2 recruitment to CPF, can rescue the growth and termination defects, indicating a functional interaction between the two proteins [3].
  • As the first gene genetically identified to participate in mRNA 3'-end maturation prior to the final polyadenylation step, REF2 provides an ideal starting point for identifying related genes in this event [4].
  • Sequencing of the complementing gene predicts the Ref2p product to be a novel, basic protein of 429 amino acids (M(r), 48,000) with a high-level lysine/serine content and some unusual features [4].

Other interactions of REF2

  • This synergistic response provides additional support for the interaction of FIR1 with REF2 in vivo, and suggests that a number of gene products may be involved in regulating the cleavage reaction in yeast [5].
  • Ref2 and Pta1 similarly affect at least one snoRNA transcript [6].


  1. Pti1p and Ref2p found in association with the mRNA 3' end formation complex direct snoRNA maturation. Dheur, S., Vo, l.e. .T.A., Voisinet-Hakil, F., Minet, M., Schmitter, J.M., Lacroute, F., Wyers, F., Minvielle-Sebastia, L. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of factors regulating poly(A) tail synthesis and maturation. Mangus, D.A., Smith, M.M., McSweeney, J.M., Jacobson, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The essential WD repeat protein Swd2 has dual functions in RNA polymerase II transcription termination and lysine 4 methylation of histone H3. Cheng, H., He, X., Moore, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. REF2 encodes an RNA-binding protein directly involved in yeast mRNA 3'-end formation. Russnak, R., Nehrke, K.W., Platt, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. RNA binding analysis of yeast REF2 and its two-hybrid interaction with a new gene product, FIR1. Russnak, R., Pereira, S., Platt, T. Gene Expr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Organization and function of APT, a subcomplex of the yeast cleavage and polyadenylation factor involved in the formation of mRNA and small nucleolar RNA 3'-ends. Nedea, E., He, X., Kim, M., Pootoolal, J., Zhong, G., Canadien, V., Hughes, T., Buratowski, S., Moore, C.L., Greenblatt, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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