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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Polyadenylation


Psychiatry related information on Polyadenylation

  • The alternative polyadenylation of the mRNA encoding the amyloid precursor protein (APP) involved in Alzheimer's disease generates two molecules, with the first of these containing 258 additional nucleotides in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) [6].

High impact information on Polyadenylation


Chemical compound and disease context of Polyadenylation


Biological context of Polyadenylation


Anatomical context of Polyadenylation


Associations of Polyadenylation with chemical compounds

  • Poly(A)+ RNA transcribed from this segment in yeast terminates at multiple sites clustered just beyond an AAUAAA sequence implicated in polyadenylation of higher eucaryotic messages [27].
  • Intron 4, located 600 bases from the polyadenylation site, is excised cotranscriptionally in 5%-10% of the molecules and after or during release to the nucleoplasm in the remaining molecules [28].
  • Primer-dependent polyadenylation activity was associated exclusively with purified VP55-VP39 heterodimer, which, although stable to column chromatography and glycerol gradient sedimentation, was readily dissociated by antibody to an N-terminal peptide of VP55 [29].
  • In addition, the polyadenylation enzyme (or enzymes) cosediment with the nucleoprotein complexes during sucrose gradient centrifugation since gradient purified complexes synthesize poly(A) containing RNA in vitro in the absence of any added nuclear extract [30].
  • The polyadenylation of mRNA occurs post-transcriptionally in the nucleus as a rapid, initial addition of 100-200 adenylate residues to the pre-mRNA (ref. 1). Subsequently, a slower chain extension (6-8 bases) of the poly(A) tail seems to occur both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm [31].

Gene context of Polyadenylation

  • The FIP1 gene encodes a component of a yeast pre-mRNA polyadenylation factor that directly interacts with poly(A) polymerase [32].
  • Here we show, by inserting a polyadenylation signal that truncates 96% of the RNA transcript, that Air RNA is required for silencing [33].
  • Depletion of a yeast whole-cell extract with antibodies to CFT1 protein abolished cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs [34].
  • The observed cleavage in vitro is (i) accurate, occurring at or near the polyadenylation site of CYC1 RNA, (ii) 30 to 50 percent efficient, (iii) adenosine triphosphate dependent, (iv) specific for the 3' ends of at least two yeast pre-mRNA's, and (v) absent with related pre-mRNA's carrying mutations that abolish correct 3' end formation in vivo [35].
  • These data indicate that a tRNA surveillance pathway exists in yeast that requires Trf4p and the exosome for polyadenylation and degradation of hypomodified pre-tRNA(i)(Met) [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Polyadenylation


  1. CPSF recognition of an HIV-1 mRNA 3'-processing enhancer: multiple sequence contacts involved in poly(A) site definition. Gilmartin, G.M., Fleming, E.S., Oetjen, J., Graveley, B.R. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and expression of cDNA clones encoding mammalian poly(A) polymerase. Wahle, E., Martin, G., Schiltz, E., Keller, W. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro DNA methylation inhibits gene expression in transgenic tobacco. Weber, H., Ziechmann, C., Graessmann, A. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Uridylate-containing RNA sequences determine specificity for binding and polyadenylation by the catalytic subunit of vaccinia virus poly(A) polymerase. Gershon, P.D., Moss, B. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. An Arabidopsis histone H2A mutant is deficient in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration. Mysore, K.S., Nam, J., Gelvin, S.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. A GG nucleotide sequence of the 3' untranslated region of amyloid precursor protein mRNA plays a key role in the regulation of translation and the binding of proteins. Mbella, E.G., Bertrand, S., Huez, G., Octave, J.N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. RNA degradation by the exosome is promoted by a nuclear polyadenylation complex. LaCava, J., Houseley, J., Saveanu, C., Petfalski, E., Thompson, E., Jacquier, A., Tollervey, D. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The polyadenylation factor CPSF-73 is involved in histone-pre-mRNA processing. Dominski, Z., Yang, X.C., Marzluff, W.F. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Symplekin and xGLD-2 are required for CPEB-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Barnard, D.C., Ryan, K., Manley, J.L., Richter, J.D. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The BARD1-CstF-50 interaction links mRNA 3' end formation to DNA damage and tumor suppression. Kleiman, F.E., Manley, J.L. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. A candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene at chromosome 17p. Tavtigian, S.V., Simard, J., Teng, D.H., Abtin, V., Baumgard, M., Beck, A., Camp, N.J., Carillo, A.R., Chen, Y., Dayananth, P., Desrochers, M., Dumont, M., Farnham, J.M., Frank, D., Frye, C., Ghaffari, S., Gupte, J.S., Hu, R., Iliev, D., Janecki, T., Kort, E.N., Laity, K.E., Leavitt, A., Leblanc, G., McArthur-Morrison, J., Pederson, A., Penn, B., Peterson, K.T., Reid, J.E., Richards, S., Schroeder, M., Smith, R., Snyder, S.C., Swedlund, B., Swensen, J., Thomas, A., Tranchant, M., Woodland, A.M., Labrie, F., Skolnick, M.H., Neuhausen, S., Rommens, J., Cannon-Albright, L.A. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Retrovirus transduction: generation of infectious retroviruses expressing dominant and selectable genes is associated with in vivo recombination and deletion events. Joyner, A.L., Bernstein, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple forms of poly(A) polymerases purified from HeLa cells function in specific mRNA 3'-end formation. Ryner, L.C., Takagaki, Y., Manley, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. DNA ribonucleases that are active against intracellular hepatitis B viral RNA targets. Asahina, Y., Ito, Y., Wu, C.H., Wu, G.Y. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Poly(A) polymerase activity and RNA polyadenylation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Bralley, P., Jones, G.H. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Specific polyadenylation and purification of total messenger RNA from Escherichia coli. Amara, R.R., Vijaya, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. A novel poly(A)-binding protein acts as a specificity factor in the second phase of messenger RNA polyadenylation. Wahle, E. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Alpha-thalassaemia caused by a polyadenylation signal mutation. Higgs, D.R., Goodbourn, S.E., Lamb, J., Clegg, J.B., Weatherall, D.J., Proudfoot, N.J. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Coordinate initiation of Drosophila development by regulated polyadenylation of maternal messenger RNAs. Sallés, F.J., Lieberfarb, M.E., Wreden, C., Gergen, J.P., Strickland, S. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro polyadenylation is stimulated by the presence of an upstream intron. Niwa, M., Rose, S.D., Berget, S.M. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. An intron enhancer recognized by splicing factors activates polyadenylation. Lou, H., Gagel, R.F., Berget, S.M. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. The polyadenylation factor CstF-64 regulates alternative processing of IgM heavy chain pre-mRNA during B cell differentiation. Takagaki, Y., Seipelt, R.L., Peterson, M.L., Manley, J.L. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes triggers the translation and polyadenylation of dormant tissue-type plasminogen activator mRNA. Huarte, J., Belin, D., Vassalli, A., Strickland, S., Vassalli, J.D. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Alternative polyadenylation events contribute to the induction of NF-ATc in effector T cells. Chuvpilo, S., Zimmer, M., Kerstan, A., Glöckner, J., Avots, A., Escher, C., Fischer, C., Inashkina, I., Jankevics, E., Berberich-Siebelt, F., Schmitt, E., Serfling, E. Immunity (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Structural analysis of the X-linked gene encoding human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Martini, G., Toniolo, D., Vulliamy, T., Luzzatto, L., Dono, R., Viglietto, G., Paonessa, G., D'Urso, M., Persico, M.G. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Increase in the 64-kDa subunit of the polyadenylation/cleavage stimulatory factor during the G0 to S phase transition. Martincic, K., Campbell, R., Edwalds-Gilbert, G., Souan, L., Lotze, M.T., Milcarek, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Transcription terminates in yeast distal to a control sequence. Henikoff, S., Kelly, J.D., Cohen, E.H. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Splicing of Balbiani ring 1 gene pre-mRNA occurs simultaneously with transcription. Baurén, G., Wieslander, L. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Poly(A) polymerase and a dissociable polyadenylation stimulatory factor encoded by vaccinia virus. Gershon, P.D., Ahn, B.Y., Garfield, M., Moss, B. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcription and accurate polyadenylation in vitro of RNA from the major late adenovirus 2 transcription unit. Chen-Kiang, S., Wolgemuth, D.J., Hsu, M.T., Darnell, J.E. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  31. Specific inhibition of chromatin-associated poly(A) synthesis in vitro by cordycepin 5'-triphosphate. Rose, K.M., Bell, L.E., Jacob, S.T. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. The FIP1 gene encodes a component of a yeast pre-mRNA polyadenylation factor that directly interacts with poly(A) polymerase. Preker, P.J., Lingner, J., Minvielle-Sebastia, L., Keller, W. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. The non-coding Air RNA is required for silencing autosomal imprinted genes. Sleutels, F., Zwart, R., Barlow, D.P. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Dependence of yeast pre-mRNA 3'-end processing on CFT1: a sequence homolog of the mammalian AAUAAA binding factor. Stumpf, G., Domdey, H. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. RNA processing generates the mature 3' end of yeast CYC1 messenger RNA in vitro. Butler, J.S., Platt, T. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Nuclear surveillance and degradation of hypomodified initiator tRNAMet in S. cerevisiae. Kadaba, S., Krueger, A., Trice, T., Krecic, A.M., Hinnebusch, A.G., Anderson, J. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. A common pyrimidine-rich motif governs trans-splicing and polyadenylation of tubulin polycistronic pre-mRNA in trypanosomes. Matthews, K.R., Tschudi, C., Ullu, E. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Lack of an effect of the efficiency of RNA 3'-end formation on the efficiency of removal of either the final or the penultimate intron in intact cells. Nesic, D., Zhang, J., Maquat, L.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. A novel in vivo transcription assay demonstrates the presence of globin-inducing trans-acting factors in uninduced murine erythroleukemia cells. Wrighton, N., Grosveld, F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  40. Structure of the 68-kDa neurofilament gene and regulation of its expression. Nakahira, K., Ikenaka, K., Wada, K., Tamura, T., Furuichi, T., Mikoshiba, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
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