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Gene Review

gadC  -  glutamate:gamma-aminobutyric acid antiporter

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1486, JW1487, acsA, xasA
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Disease relevance of gadC

  • Southern hybridization revealed that both the gadC and hdeAB loci are absent in Salmonella [1].
  • The most potent E. coli acid resistance system utilizes two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase encoded by gadA and gadB and a putative glutamate:gamma-aminobutyric acid antiporter encoded by gadC [2].

High impact information on gadC


Biological context of gadC

  • Here, we describe the nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of two genes transcribed from this promoter, gadC and gadB [5].
  • We confirm that gadA, gadB, and gadC are also all dependent upon sigma(s) for their expression in S. flexneri. -10 sequences similar to the sigma(s)-10 consensus sequence were identified by primer extension in the upstream promoters of all three genes and the transcriptional start points were identical in both E. coli and S. flexneri [6].

Associations of gadC with chemical compounds

  • In the present work, we provide in vivo evidence that gadC is co-transcribed with gadB and that the functional glutamic acid-dependent system requires the activities of both GadA/B and GadC [3].

Other interactions of gadC

  • This compound is exported via the protein product of the gadC gene, which is cotranscribed with gadB [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gadC

  • An expression cassette consisting of the positive-regulator gene gadR, the chloride-inducible promoter Pgad, and the translation initiation signals of gadC was amplified by PCR [8].


  1. Identification of sigma S-dependent genes associated with the stationary-phase acid-resistance phenotype of Shigella flexneri. Waterman, S.R., Small, P.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Transcriptional expression of Escherichia coli glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes gadA and gadBC in an hns rpoS mutant. Waterman, S.R., Small, P.L. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The response to stationary-phase stress conditions in Escherichia coli: role and regulation of the glutamic acid decarboxylase system. De Biase, D., Tramonti, A., Bossa, F., Visca, P. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Mechanisms of Transcription Activation Exerted by GadX and GadW at the gadA and gadBC Gene Promoters of the Glutamate-Based Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli. Tramonti, A., De Canio, M., Delany, I., Scarlato, V., De Biase, D. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. A chloride-inducible acid resistance mechanism in Lactococcus lactis and its regulation. Sanders, J.W., Leenhouts, K., Burghoorn, J., Brands, J.R., Venema, G., Kok, J. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of the promoter regions and sigma(s)-dependent regulation of the gadA and gadBC genes associated with glutamate-dependent acid resistance in Shigella flexneri. Waterman, S.R., Small, P.L. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional characterization and regulation of gadX, a gene encoding an AraC/XylS-like transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli glutamic acid decarboxylase system. Tramonti, A., Visca, P., De Canio, M., Falconi, M., De Biase, D. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. A chloride-inducible gene expression cassette and its use in induced lysis of Lactococcus lactis. Sanders, J.W., Venema, G., Kok, J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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