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Gene Review

HA  -  haemagglutinin

Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1))

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Disease relevance of HA


High impact information on HA

  • The haemagglutinin gene, but not the neuraminidase gene, of 'Spanish flu' was a recombinant [5].
  • To examine the level of antigenic variation in these swine viruses, a panel of 60 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the haemagglutinin (HA) of recent swine isolates was prepared [6].
  • The 11-12 amino acid differences in the HA1 domain of virus haemagglutinin between A/Taiwan/1/86 and representative epidemic H1N1 strains in Finland in 1991 did not result in lowered haemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody responses to the latter viruses [7].


  1. Nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin gene of a human influenza virus H1 subtype. Winter, G., Fields, S., Brownlee, G.G. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Antigenicity and evolution amongst recent influenza viruses of H1N1 subtype. Raymond, F.L., Caton, A.J., Cox, N.J., Kendal, A.P., Brownlee, G.G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Evolution of the HA1 domain of human influenza A (H1N1) virus: loss of glycosylation sites and occurrence of herald and conserved strains. Pyhälä, R., Ikonen, N., Forsten, T., Alanko, S., Kinnunen, L. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. The subclass IgG responses of mice to influenza surface proteins formulated into liposomes. Ben Ahmeida, E.T., Jennings, R., Tan, L., Gregoriadis, G., Potter, C.W. Antiviral Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The haemagglutinin gene, but not the neuraminidase gene, of 'Spanish flu' was a recombinant. Gibbs, M.J., Armstrong, J.S., Gibbs, A.J. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Antigenic conservation of H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Sheerar, M.G., Easterday, B.C., Hinshaw, V.S. J. Gen. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Vaccination-induced HI antibody to influenza A(H1N1) viruses in poorly primed adults under circumstances of low antigenic drift. Pyhälä, R., Kinnunen, L., Kumpulainen, V., Ikonen, N., Kleemola, M., Cantell, K. Vaccine (1993) [Pubmed]
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