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Gene Review

Neu1  -  neuraminidase 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AA407268, AA407316, Aglp, Apl, Bat-7, ...
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Disease relevance of Neu1

  • Mice nullizygous at the Neu1 locus develop clinical abnormalities reminiscent of early-onset sialidosis in children, including severe nephropathy, progressive edema, splenomegaly, kyphosis and urinary excretion of sialylated oligosaccharides [1].
  • In this study we tested the therapeutic efficacy of baculovirus (BV) expressed mouse neuraminidase (Neu1) in sialidosis mice [2].
  • We found that minority subsets of such particles did produce plaques, provided they were activated by trypsin (analogous to other abortive systems producing virions with uncleaved HA), a step obviated for some WSN virions by indirect promotion of hemagglutinin cleavage by the neuraminidase of that strain [3].
  • Induction of axonal differentiation by silencing plasma membrane-associated sialidase Neu3 in neuroblastoma cells [4].
  • From the reassortment experiments between A/Aichi/4/92 and A/WSN/33 (WSN) (H1N1) viruses, two different phenotype viruses which contained the haemagglutinin (HA) gene from A/Aichi/4/92 virus and the neuraminidase (NA) gene from WSN virus were obtained [5].

Psychiatry related information on Neu1

  • Neuraminidase treatment of proteoglycan-deficient cells restores permissiveness to GDVII virus, indicating that sialic acid hinders direct access of virus to the protein entry receptor [6].
  • Adsorption experiments indicated that the PY206 Id was borne by antibodies specific for viral hemagglutinin (HA) and/or neuraminidase (NA) [7].

High impact information on Neu1


Chemical compound and disease context of Neu1


Biological context of Neu1


Anatomical context of Neu1

  • Neu1 infused alone or co-administered with its associated protein, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) was effectively taken up by resident macrophages in many tissues [2].
  • Cloning of the cDNA and gene encoding mouse lysosomal sialidase and correction of sialidase deficiency in human sialidosis and mouse SM/J fibroblasts [21].
  • Northern blot analysis revealed high expression of multiple sialidase transcripts in kidney and epididymis, moderate levels in brain and spinal cord, and low levels in adrenal, heart, liver, lung and spleen [21].
  • Identification and expression of NEU3, a novel human sialidase associated to the plasma membrane [22].
  • A reduction of 70% of the plasma membrane-associated sialidase Neu3 activity, due to a corresponding reduction of the enzyme expression by transducing cells with a short hairpin RNA encoding a sequence target (complementary messenger of mouse Neu3), caused neurite elongation in Neuro2a murine neuroblastoma cells [4].

Associations of Neu1 with chemical compounds

  • The Neu1 locus, in the S region of the murine histocompatibility-2 complex, regulates the sialic acid content of several liver lysosomal enzymes [23].
  • The cDNA for this sialidase encodes a 428-residue protein containing a putative transmembrane helix, a YRIP (single-letter amino acid codes) motif and three Asp boxes characteristic of sialidases [22].
  • These studies have indicated important roles for the neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), non-structural (NS) and haemagglutinin (HA) genes of the virus in determining neurovirulence [24].
  • The differences in charge heterogeneity of class I molecules between activated T-cells and the other cell subpopulations were abolished by treatment with: (1) endoglycosidase F which removes N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins, and (2) neuraminidase which removes sialic acids from carbohydrate side chains [25].
  • NEU1 lacks a functional mannose-6-phosphate recognition marker and is not endocytosed by mammalian cells [2].

Physical interactions of Neu1


Co-localisations of Neu1


Regulatory relationships of Neu1


Other interactions of Neu1

  • Evidence for placing the Neu-1 locus within the mouse H-2 complex [36].
  • This indicates that Neu-1 lies in the segment of the SM/J-derived H-2 region that is common to all three strains: H-2E alpha to H-2D [19].
  • The pathologic manifestations in patients relate primarily to the severe deficiency of neuraminidase, and the physiological significance of cathepsin A activity remains unclear [37].
  • We discussed the possibility that the M1 protein helped the NA protein in its role to modify the HA protein on the cell surface [5].
  • The gene order and map distances in per cent recombination of the loci studied are T (20.6 +/- 3.4) Pgk-2 (7.4 +/- 2.2) Apl [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Neu1


  1. Systemic and neurologic abnormalities distinguish the lysosomal disorders sialidosis and galactosialidosis in mice. de Geest, N., Bonten, E., Mann, L., de Sousa-Hitzler, J., Hahn, C., d'Azzo, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Short-term, high dose enzyme replacement therapy in sialidosis mice. Wang, D., Bonten, E.J., Yogalingam, G., Mann, L., d'Azzo, A. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of hemagglutinin cleavage and expression of M1 protein in replication of A/WS/33, A/PR/8/34, and WSN influenza viruses in mouse brain. Schlesinger, R.W., Bradshaw, G.L., Barbone, F., Reinacher, M., Rott, R., Husak, P. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of axonal differentiation by silencing plasma membrane-associated sialidase Neu3 in neuroblastoma cells. Valaperta, R., Valsecchi, M., Rocchetta, F., Aureli, M., Prioni, S., Prinetti, A., Chigorno, V., Sonnino, S. J. Neurochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. M protein correlates with the receptor-binding specificity of haemagglutinin protein of reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus. Tong, N., Nobusawa, E., Morishita, M., Nakajima, S., Nakajima, K. J. Gen. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Heparan sulfate mediates infection of high-neurovirulence Theiler's viruses. Reddi, H.V., Lipton, H.L. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of variable-region genes and shared crossreactive idiotypes of antibodies specific for antigens of various influenza viruses. Moran, T.M., Monestier, M., Lai, A.C., Norton, G., Reale, M.A., Thompson, M.A., Schulman, J.L., Riblet, R., Bona, C.A. Viral Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. A cell surface molecule distributed in a dorsoventral gradient in the perinatal rat retina. Constantine-Paton, M., Blum, A.S., Mendez-Otero, R., Barnstable, C.J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Chloroquine and ammonium chloride prevent terminal glycosylation of immunoglobulins in plasma cells without affecting secretion. Thorens, B., Vassalli, P. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Epithelial cell surfaces induce Salmonella proteins required for bacterial adherence and invasion. Finlay, B.B., Heffron, F., Falkow, S. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Cells process exogenous proteins for recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Yewdell, J.W., Bennink, J.R., Hosaka, Y. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Involvement of sialic acid on endothelial cells in organ-specific lymphocyte recirculation. Rosen, S.D., Singer, M.S., Yednock, T.A., Stoolman, L.M. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Preparation and characterization of a purified influenza virus neuraminidase vaccine. Hocart, M., Grajower, B., Donabedian, A., Pokorny, B., Whitaker, C., Kilbourne, E.D. Vaccine (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Class II major histocompatibility complex-restricted T cells specific for a virion structural protein that do not recognize exogenous influenza virus. Evidence that presentation of labile T cell determinants is favored by endogenous antigen synthesis. Eisenlohr, L.C., Hackett, C.J. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Recognition of viral glycoproteins by influenza A-specific cross-reactive cytolytic T lymphocytes. Koszinowski, U.H., Allen, H., Gething, M.J., Waterfield, M.D., Klenk, H.D. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Organization and neuraminidase susceptibility of sialic acid residues in human melanoma cell lines with different heterotransplantabilities in nude mice. Berthier-Vergnes, O., Portoukalian, J., Doré, J.F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virus virosome vaccine delivery system for immunization against hepatitis A. Glück, R., Mischler, R., Brantschen, S., Just, M., Althaus, B., Cryz, S.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. A point mutation in the neu-1 locus causes the neuraminidase defect in the SM/J mouse. Rottier, R.J., Bonten, E., d'Azzo, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Electrophoretic analysis of liver neuraminidase-1 variation in mice and additional evidence concerning the location of NEU-1. Samollow, P.B., VandeBerg, J.L., Ford, A.L., Douglas, T.C., David, C.S. J. Immunogenet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Gene for neuraminidase activity on mouse chromosome 17 near h-2: pleiotropic effects on multiple hydrolases. Womack, J.E., Yan, D.L., Potier, M. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning of the cDNA and gene encoding mouse lysosomal sialidase and correction of sialidase deficiency in human sialidosis and mouse SM/J fibroblasts. Igdoura, S.A., Gafuik, C., Mertineit, C., Saberi, F., Pshezhetsky, A.V., Potier, M., Trasler, J.M., Gravel, R.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification and expression of NEU3, a novel human sialidase associated to the plasma membrane. Monti, E., Bassi, M.T., Papini, N., Riboni, M., Manzoni, M., Venerando, B., Croci, G., Preti, A., Ballabio, A., Tettamanti, G., Borsani, G. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and characterization of a sialidase from the murine histocompatibility-2 complex: low levels of mRNA and a single amino acid mutation are responsible for reduced sialidase activity in mice carrying the Neu1a allele. Carrillo, M.B., Milner, C.M., Ball, S.T., Snoek, M., Campbell, R.D. Glycobiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Neurovirulence of influenza A virus. Ward, A.C. J. Neurovirol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Activated T-lymphocytes express class I molecules which are hyposialylated compared to other lymphocyte populations. Landolfi, N.F., Cook, R.G. Mol. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Lack of PPCA expression only partially coincides with lysosomal storage in galactosialidosis mice: indirect evidence for spatial requirement of the catalytic rather than the protective function of PPCA. Rottier, R.J., Hahn, C.N., Mann, L.W., del Pilar Martin, M., Smeyne, R.J., Suzuki, K., d'Azzo, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Mouse P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1: molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression of a functional P-selectin receptor. Yang, J., Galipeau, J., Kozak, C.A., Furie, B.C., Furie, B. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Tunicamycin modulates binding of 125I-erythropoietin to Friend erythroleukemia cells. Fukamachi, H., Tojo, A., Saito, T., Kitamura, T., Urabe, A., Takaku, F. Nippon Ketsueki Gakkai Zasshi (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Class I H-2d-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize the neuraminidase glycoprotein of influenza virus subtype N1. Wysocka, M., Hackett, C.J. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Assay for sialidase using erythrocytes and peroxidase-labeled peanut lectin. Nagai, T., Yamada, H. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Epidermal growth factor-induced mobilization of a ganglioside-specific sialidase (NEU3) to membrane ruffles. Yamaguchi, K., Hata, K., Wada, T., Moriya, S., Miyagi, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Ganglioside control over IL-4 priming and cytokine production in activated T cells. Chen, X.P., Ding, X., Daynes, R.A. Cytokine (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Neuraminidase-treated macrophages stimulate allogenic CD8+ T cells in the presence of exogenous interleukin 2. Hirayama, Y., Inaba, K., Inaba, M., Kato, T., Kitaura, M., Hosokawa, T., Ikehara, S., Muramatsu, S. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. L-selectin-dependent leukocyte adhesion to microvascular but not to macrovascular endothelial cells of the human coronary system. Zakrzewicz, A., Gräfe, M., Terbeek, D., Bongrazio, M., Auch-Schwelk, W., Walzog, B., Graf, K., Fleck, E., Ley, K., Gaehtgens, P. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. A sexual dimorphism in intrathymic sialylation survey is revealed by the trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Mucci, J., Mocetti, E., Leguizamón, M.S., Campetella, O. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Evidence for placing the Neu-1 locus within the mouse H-2 complex. Figueroa, F., Klein, D., Tewarson, S., Klein, J. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  37. Identification of the promoters for the human and murine protective protein/cathepsin A genes. Rottier, R.J., D'Azzo, A. DNA Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Liver-specific lysosomal acid phosphatase deficiency (Apl) on mouse chromosome 17. Womack, J.E., Eicher, E.M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  39. Characterization of an adhesion molecule that mediates leukocyte rolling on 24 h cytokine- or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine endothelial cells under flow conditions. Jutila, M.A., Wilson, E., Kurk, S. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Properties and distribution of a lectin-like hemagglutinin differentially expressed by murine stromal tissue macrophages. Crocker, P.R., Gordon, S. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Failure of immunotherapy with neuraminidase-treated tumor cell vaccine in mice bearing established 3-methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas. Spence, R.J., Simon, R.M., Baker, A.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  42. Production of laminin B2 chain protein and messenger RNA by a murine neutrophil precursor cell line, 32Dc13. Tweardy, D.J., Sasaki, M., Cardamone, J.J., McCoy, J.P., Bonidie, M.J., Signorella, A.P. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
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