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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of luteinizing hormone beta gene by gonadotropin-releasing hormone requires the synergy of early growth response-1 and steroidogenic factor-1.

We have previously shown that early growth response (Egr) 1-deficient mice exhibit female infertility, reflecting a luteinizing hormone (LH) beta deficiency. Egr-1 activates the LHbeta gene in vitro through synergy with steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a protein required for gonadotrope function. To test if this synergy is essential for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation of LHbeta, we examined the activity of the LHbeta promoter in the gonadotrope cell line LbetaT2. GnRH markedly stimulated the LHbeta promoter (15-fold). Mutation of either Egr-1 or SF-1 elements within the LHbeta promoter attenuated this stimulation, whereas mutation of both promoter elements abrogated GnRH induction of the LHbeta promoter. Furthermore, GnRH stimulated Egr-1 but not SF-1 expression in LbetaT2 cells. Importantly, overexpression of Egr-1 alone was sufficient to enhance LHbeta expression. Although other Egr proteins are expressed in LbetaT2 cells and are capable of interacting with SF-1, GnRH stimulation of Egr-1 was the most robust. We also found that the nuclear receptor DAX-1, a repressor of SF-1 activity, reduced Egr-1-SF-1 synergy and diminished GnRH stimulation of the LHbeta promoter. We conclude that the synergy between Egr-1 and SF-1 is essential for GnRH stimulation of the LHbeta gene and plays a central role in the dynamic regulation of LHbeta expression.[1]


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