The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Egr1  -  early growth response 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: A530045N19Rik, EGR-1, ETR103, Early growth response protein 1, Egr-1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Egr1

  • Here we have assessed the effect of Egr1 deficiency on tumor development in two transgenic mouse models of prostate cancer (CR2-T-Ag and TRAMP) [1].
  • These results indicate a unique role for Egr1 in regulating the transition from localized, carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma [1].
  • Analysis of these genes reveals a consensus promoter structure consisting of multiple, often closely spaced c-Myc binding sites and three additional Wilm's tumor and Egr1-like motifs [2].
  • In contradiction, in breast, lung and brain tumors, Egr1 expression is often absent or reduced and when re-expressed, results in growth suppression [3].
  • Luteinizing hormone deficiency and female infertility in mice lacking the transcription factor NGFI-A (Egr-1) [4].
  • This study provides what we believe is the first evidence that Egr-1 increases the mortality of HSV-1 encephalitis by enhancing viral replication [5].

Psychiatry related information on Egr1


High impact information on Egr1

  • One cDNA clone of a primary response gene, expressed upon macrophage differentiation, encoded for Egr-1, a zinc finger transcription factor [9].
  • Egr-1 antisense oligomers in the culture media blocked macrophage differentiation in both myeloid leukemia cell lines and normal myeloblasts [9].
  • HL-60 cells constitutively expressing an Egr-1 transgene (HL-60Egr-1) could be induced for macrophage, but not granulocyte, differentiation [9].
  • The Egr-1 gene was observed to be transcriptionally silent in HL-60 cells, but active in U-937 and M1 cells, the latter two being predetermined for macrophage differentiation [9].
  • These observations indicate that expression of Egr-1 is essential for and restricts differentiation of myeloblasts along the macrophage lineage [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Egr1

  • The results provide a mechanistic basis for the oncogenic role of Egr1 in TRAMP C2 prostate cancer cells [10].
  • This forms a foundation for analysis of detailed mechanisms underlying Egr-1 activation during hyperoxia and understanding its consequences for regulating cell response to oxygen toxicity [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differential regulation of Egr-1 expression by insulin and glucose in vascular cells may be one of the initial key events that plays a crucial role in the development of diabetic vascular complications [12].
  • We investigated the combined use of Ad.Egr-TNF, a replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding the cDNA for TNF-alpha under the control of chemo-inducible elements of the egr1 gene promoter, and intraperitoneal temozolomide in an intracranial human malignant glioma model [13].
  • Administration of carbachol, noradrenaline, and bradykinin induced Egr-1 mRNA expression within 1 h in mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells [14].

Biological context of Egr1


Anatomical context of Egr1

  • Stringent expression analysis revealed 266 transcripts with >2-fold differential expression in Egr1-null mouse embryo fibroblasts, including 143 known genes [19].
  • We have found that on TCR transgenic backgrounds, Egr1-deficient mice have a reduction in their number of naive T cells [20].
  • Furthermore, gel-shift analyses demonstrated the binding of Egr1, 2, and 3 in Th2 cells and Egr1 and 2, but not Egr3 in Th1 cells at a known Egr site [21].
  • The induction of Egr1 by external stimuli is generally transient but appears to be sustained in some prostate tumor cell lines and tumors, suggesting that Egr1 stimulates tumor cell growth [3].
  • Activity-dependent activation of Egr1 has been reported in forebrain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), after peripheral injury [22].

Associations of Egr1 with chemical compounds

  • The results show that the Egr1 promoter is induced by cisplatin and that this induction is mediated in part through the CArG elements [23].
  • Functional compensation by Egr4 in Egr1-dependent luteinizing hormone regulation and Leydig cell steroidogenesis [18].
  • Due to decreased levels of LHbeta, female Egr1-deficient mice are anovulatory, have low levels of progesterone, and are infertile [18].
  • In wild-type mice, challenge with LPS increased Egr-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and DNA binding activity in liver; this response to LPS was enhanced after chronic ethanol feeding [24].
  • Transient expression of Egr-3 alone increased fasL promoter activity in a cyclosporin A-insensitive manner, whereas expression of Egr-1 had little effect [25].

Physical interactions of Egr1


Regulatory relationships of Egr1


Other interactions of Egr1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Egr1


  1. Impaired prostate tumorigenesis in Egr1-deficient mice. Abdulkadir, S.A., Qu, Z., Garabedian, E., Song, S.K., Peters, T.J., Svaren, J., Carbone, J.M., Naughton, C.K., Catalona, W.J., Ackerman, J.J., Gordon, J.I., Humphrey, P.A., Milbrandt, J. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Deregulation of common genes by c-Myc and its direct target, MT-MC1. Rogulski, K.R., Cohen, D.E., Corcoran, D.L., Benos, P.V., Prochownik, E.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Egr1 transcription factor: multiple roles in prostate tumor cell growth and survival. Adamson, E.D., Mercola, D. Tumour Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Luteinizing hormone deficiency and female infertility in mice lacking the transcription factor NGFI-A (Egr-1). Lee, S.L., Sadovsky, Y., Swirnoff, A.H., Polish, J.A., Goda, P., Gavrilina, G., Milbrandt, J. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Suppression of transcription factor early growth response 1 reduces herpes simplex virus lethality in mice. Chen, S.H., Yao, H.W., Chen, I.T., Shieh, B., Li, C., Chen, S.H. J. Clin. Invest. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Experience-dependent plasticity of mouse visual cortex in the absence of the neuronal activity-dependent marker egr1/zif268. Mataga, N., Fujishima, S., Condie, B.G., Hensch, T.K. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The herbal prescription youkongdan modulates rodent memory, ischemic damage and cortical mRNA gene expression. Shin, J.S., So, C.S., Kim, Y.O., Ahn, D.K., Sharman, K.G., Sharman, E.H. Int. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Altered GABAergic neurotransmission in mice lacking dopamine D2 receptors. An, J.J., Bae, M.H., Cho, S.R., Lee, S.H., Choi, S.H., Lee, B.H., Shin, H.S., Kim, Y.N., Park, K.W., Borrelli, E., Baik, J.H. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 is essential for and restricts differentiation along the macrophage lineage. Nguyen, H.Q., Hoffman-Liebermann, B., Liebermann, D.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Egr1 promotes growth and survival of prostate cancer cells. Identification of novel Egr1 target genes. Virolle, T., Krones-Herzig, A., Baron, V., De Gregorio, G., Adamson, E.D., Mercola, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Hyperoxia induces Egr-1 expression through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Jones, N., Agani, F.H. J. Cell. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential regulation of early growth response gene-1 expression by insulin and glucose in vascular endothelial cells. Hasan, R.N., Phukan, S., Harada, S. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Transcriptional targeting of adenovirally delivered tumor necrosis factor alpha by temozolomide in experimental glioblastoma. Yamini, B., Yu, X., Gillespie, G.Y., Kufe, D.W., Weichselbaum, R.R. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Additive induction of Egr-1 (zif/268) mRNA expression in neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells via cholinergic muscarinic, alpha 2-adrenergic, and bradykinin receptors. Katayama, N., Iwata, E., Sakurai, H., Tsuchiya, T., Tsuda, M. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Mediator requirement for both recruitment and postrecruitment steps in transcription initiation. Wang, G., Balamotis, M.A., Stevens, J.L., Yamaguchi, Y., Handa, H., Berk, A.J. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Novel mutants of NAB corepressors enhance activation by Egr transactivators. Svaren, J., Sevetson, B.R., Golda, T., Stanton, J.J., Swirnoff, A.H., Milbrandt, J. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. The neuroplasticity-associated arc gene is a direct transcriptional target of early growth response (Egr) transcription factors. Li, L., Carter, J., Gao, X., Whitehead, J., Tourtellotte, W.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional compensation by Egr4 in Egr1-dependent luteinizing hormone regulation and Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Tourtellotte, W.G., Nagarajan, R., Bartke, A., Milbrandt, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Early growth response 1 acts as a tumor suppressor in vivo and in vitro via regulation of p53. Krones-Herzig, A., Mittal, S., Yule, K., Liang, H., English, C., Urcis, R., Soni, T., Adamson, E.D., Mercola, D. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Control of recent thymic emigrant survival by positive selection signals and early growth response gene 1. Schnell, F.J., Kersh, G.J. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential expression of Fas ligand in Th1 and Th2 cells is regulated by early growth response gene and NF-AT family members. Dzialo-Hatton, R., Milbrandt, J., Hockett, R.D., Weaver, C.T. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Selective contribution of Egr1 (zif/268) to persistent inflammatory pain. Ko, S.W., Vadakkan, K.I., Ao, H., Gallitano-Mendel, A., Wei, F., Milbrandt, J., Zhuo, M. The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Transcriptional control of viral gene therapy by cisplatin. Park, J.O., Lopez, C.A., Gupta, V.K., Brown, C.K., Mauceri, H.J., Darga, T.E., Manan, A., Hellman, S., Posner, M.C., Kufe, D.W., Weichselbaum, R.R. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Early growth response-1 transcription factor is essential for ethanol-induced fatty liver injury in mice. McMullen, M.R., Pritchard, M.T., Wang, Q., Millward, C.A., Croniger, C.M., Nagy, L.E. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Cyclosporin A-sensitive transcription factor Egr-3 regulates Fas ligand expression. Mittelstadt, P.R., Ashwell, J.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Protein kinase CK2 mediates TGF-beta1-stimulated type IV collagen gene transcription and its reversal by estradiol. Zdunek, M., Silbiger, S., Lei, J., Neugarten, J. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Induction of the early growth response gene 1 promoter by TCR agonists and partial agonists: ligand potency is related to sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase substrates. Xi, H., Kersh, G.J. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. A Krox binding site regulates protease nexin-1 promoter activity in embryonic heart, cartilage and parts of the nervous system. Ernø, H., Küry, P., Botteri, F.M., Monard, D. Mech. Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Stretch-inducible expression of the angiogenic factor CCN1 in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by Egr-1. Grote, K., Bavendiek, U., Grothusen, C., Flach, I., Hilfiker-Kleiner, D., Drexler, H., Schieffer, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Early growth-responsive-1-dependent manganese superoxide dismutase gene transcription mediated by platelet-derived growth factor. Maehara, K., Oh-Hashi, K., Isobe, K.I. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Detection and characterization of cellular EGR-1 binding to its recognition site. Cao, X., Mahendran, R., Guy, G.R., Tan, Y.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Activation of luteinizing hormone beta gene by gonadotropin-releasing hormone requires the synergy of early growth response-1 and steroidogenic factor-1. Dorn, C., Ou, Q., Svaren, J., Crawford, P.A., Sadovsky, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. The transcription factor early growth-response factor 1 modulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha, immunoglobulin E, and airway responsiveness in mice. Silverman, E.S., De Sanctis, G.T., Boyce, J., Maclean, J.A., Jiao, A., Green, F.H., Grasemann, H., Faunce, D., Fitzmaurice, G., Shi, G.P., Stein-Streilein, J., Milbrandt, J., Collins, T., Drazen, J.M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. An early growth response protein (Egr) 1 cis-element is required for gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 gene expression. Zhang, T., Wolfe, M.W., Roberson, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Regulation of pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 expression by early growth response-1. Eto, K., Kaur, V., Thomas, M.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  36. Early growth response 1 protein, an upstream gatekeeper of the p53 tumor suppressor, controls replicative senescence. Krones-Herzig, A., Adamson, E., Mercola, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Early growth response gene-2, a zinc-finger transcription factor, is required for full induction of clonal anergy in CD4+ T cells. Harris, J.E., Bishop, K.D., Phillips, N.E., Mordes, J.P., Greiner, D.L., Rossini, A.A., Czech, M.P. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Early growth response-1 attenuates liver injury and promotes hepatoprotection after carbon tetrachloride exposure in mice. Pritchard, M.T., Cohen, J.I., Roychowdhury, S., Pratt, B.T., Nagy, L.E. J. Hepatol. (2010) [Pubmed]
  39. Resistance of keratinocytes to TGFbeta-mediated growth restriction and apoptosis induction accelerates re-epithelialization in skin wounds. Amendt, C., Mann, A., Schirmacher, P., Blessing, M. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. High-level expression of Egr-1 and Egr-1-inducible genes in mouse and human atherosclerosis. McCaffrey, T.A., Fu, C., Du, B., Eksinar, S., Kent, K.C., Bush, H., Kreiger, K., Rosengart, T., Cybulsky, M.I., Silverman, E.S., Collins, T. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities