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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

CFEOM3: a new extraocular congenital fibrosis syndrome that maps to 16q24.2-q24.3.

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics and determine the gene localization for a previously undescribed form of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM), referred to as CFEOM type 3 (CFEOM3). METHODS: A large family with CFEOM was identified, and participating individuals underwent ophthalmologic examination and donated blood for genetic analysis. The family's disorder was tested for linkage to the known CFEOM loci, followed by a genome-wide search and linkage refinement using polymorphic DNA markers. RESULTS: Thirty-eight members of this Canadian family participated in the study. Affected individuals are born with a nonprogressive eye movement disorder characterized by variable expression of ptosis and restrictive external ophthalmoplegia. Severely affected individuals have ptosis, primary gaze fixed in a hypo- and exotropic position, and marked restriction of eye movement bilaterally. Mildly affected individuals have normally positioned globes with a limitation of vertical gaze. Moderately affected individuals have asymmetrical involvement with one eye severely and one eye mildly affected. The disorder is autosomal dominant with variable expression and probable incomplete penetrance. Genetic analysis reveals linkage to markers on 16q24.2q24. 3. A maximum lod score of 5.8 occurs at markers D16S3063 and D16S689, and the CFEOM3 disease gene is located within a 5.6-cM region flanked by D16S486 and D16S671. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish that CFEOM3 is a phenotypically variant and genotypically distinct form of CFEOM with linkage to chromosome 16qter. The authors have previously demonstrated that CFEOM1 results from a developmental absence of the superior division of the oculomotor nerve. The authors hypothesize that CFEOM3 results from a defect analogous to, but distinct from CFEOM1.[1]


  1. CFEOM3: a new extraocular congenital fibrosis syndrome that maps to 16q24.2-q24.3. Doherty, E.J., Macy, M.E., Wang, S.M., Dykeman, C.P., Melanson, M.T., Engle, E.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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