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MeSH Review

Eye Movements

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Disease relevance of Eye Movements


Psychiatry related information on Eye Movements


High impact information on Eye Movements

  • We judged that the best model contained four variables from the admission examination: motor response, pupillary light response, spontaneous eye movements, and blood glucose (levels below 300 mg per deciliter predicted awakening) [11].
  • (2) FUNCTION: Control of eye movements, reaching and grasping, cognitive maps, and the roles of vision receive a functional decomposition in terms of schemas [12].
  • By 24 hours after onset, 93 poor-outcome patients were identified by motor responses that were absent, extensor, or flexor and by spontaneous eye movements that were neither orienting nor roving conjugate; only one regained independent function [13].
  • We examined the activity of single dopamine neurons during a task in which subjects learned by trial and error when to make an eye movement for a juice reward [14].
  • In addition, the compensatory eye movements of L7-PKCI mice were recorded during vestibular and visual stimulation [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Eye Movements


Biological context of Eye Movements

  • Unilateral infusion of MPTP into the monkey caudate nucleus produced deficits in task-specific saccades, in addition to the deficits in spontaneous eye movements (preceding article) [21].
  • The principal finding of this study is that mutations of the SCA2 and SCA3 gene cause phenotypes which can be distinguished in vivo by recording of eye movements and morphometric MRI analysis [22].
  • METHOD: Sensitivity to diazepam was assessed in 51 children of alcoholics by using two eye movement measures: peak saccadic velocity and average smooth pursuit gain [23].
  • We therefore compared changes in ventilation, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2), upper airway resistance, heart rate, and finger photoplethysmogram pulse wave amplitude after both spontaneous and tone-induced arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep in 13 men and 13 women [24].
  • Because heart rate (HR) behavior may yield information on parasympathetic activity during OSA, we analyzed HR in samples of consecutive apneic cycles in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, recorded in normotensive patients breathing room air (n = 7) and supplemental O2 (n = 4) [25].

Anatomical context of Eye Movements


Associations of Eye Movements with chemical compounds

  • In this report, the role of attention in these eye movements is addressed in three experiments (using as subjects schizophrenics, their first-degree relatives, and normals administered chloral hydrate) that recruit focused attention to the task [31].
  • Lidocaine inactivation of each integrator results in the eye movement deficits expected if horizontal eye position and velocity signals are processed separately [32].
  • Here, we found that mice lacking alpha1(G) T-type Ca(2+) channels showed a loss of the thalamic delta (1-4 Hz) waves and a reduction of sleep spindles (7-14 Hz), whereas slow (<1 Hz) rhythms were relatively intact, when compared with the wild-type during urethane anesthesia and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep [33].
  • Prostaglandin D synthase gene is involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep [34].
  • Saccadic, pursuit, and vestibulo-ocular eye movements were recorded using infrared oculography with subjects both on placebo and on metyrosine [27].

Gene context of Eye Movements

  • We report that the magnitude of viral-induced non-rapid eye movement sleep responses in both nNOS KOs and iNOS KOs was less than that of their respective controls [35].
  • There was a compensatory reduction in light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in B/F when compared with CTRL and BOTTLE [36].
  • GDNF (500-ng dose) increased the time spent in nonrapid eye movement sleep in both rats and rabbits [37].
  • Injection of IL-1 or TNF enhances non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) [38].
  • Administration of exogenous IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha induces increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Eye Movements

  • Throughout the entire treatment period the allopregnanolone group exhibited shorter non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS) latencies, prolonged REMS latencies, longer non-REMS episodes, more pre-REMS and less low-frequency, but higher spindle activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) within non-REMS than the placebo group [40].
  • Electromyographic (EMG) activity of antagonist neck extensor (splenius capitis) and flexor (longus capitis) muscles as well as horizontal and vertical eye movements (electro-oculography, EOG) were recorded in these different experimental conditions [41].
  • Spontaneous eye movements were recorded before and after a microinjection (0.1-0.2 microliter) of either APV (an NMDA receptor antagonist) or NBQX (a non-NMDA receptor antagonist) into the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH) of the alert cat [42].
  • At each time point, optimal prediction required sets of only three to five features, typically including age in decades, depth and duration of coma as assessed by the Glasgow coma scale, pupil reactivity to light, and spontaneous and reflex eye movements [43].
  • In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study of acute L-dopa challenge, videopolysomnography revealed multiple episodes of non-rapid eye movement sleep 60 minutes after L-dopa and none following placebo [44].


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  4. Dystonia-predominant adult-onset Huntington disease: association between motor phenotype and age of onset in adults. Louis, E.D., Anderson, K.E., Moskowitz, C., Thorne, D.Z., Marder, K. Arch. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  10. Lithium effect on smooth pursuit eye movements of healthy volunteers. Flechtner, K.M., Mackert, A., Thies, K., Frick, K., Müller-Oerlinghausen, B. Biol. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
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  14. Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Bayer, H.M., Glimcher, P.W. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of a protein kinase C inhibitor in Purkinje cells blocks cerebellar LTD and adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. De Zeeuw, C.I., Hansel, C., Bian, F., Koekkoek, S.K., van Alphen, A.M., Linden, D.J., Oberdick, J. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Fluoxetine-induced sleep disturbance in depressed patients. Dorsey, C.M., Lukas, S.E., Cunningham, S.L. Neuropsychopharmacology (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Neuropeptides and human sleep. Steiger, A., Holsboer, F. Sleep. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Variation of electroencephalographic activity during non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement sleep with phase of circadian melatonin rhythm in humans. Dijk, D.J., Shanahan, T.L., Duffy, J.F., Ronda, J.M., Czeisler, C.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Protection against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism by the catecholamine uptake inhibitor nomifensine: behavioral analysis in monkeys with partial striatal dopamine depletions. Schultz, W., Scarnati, E., Sundström, E., Romo, R. Neuroscience (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Brain site-specificity of extracellular adenosine concentration changes during sleep deprivation and spontaneous sleep: an in vivo microdialysis study. Porkka-Heiskanen, T., Strecker, R.E., McCarley, R.W. Neuroscience (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Eye movements in monkeys with local dopamine depletion in the caudate nucleus. II. Deficits in voluntary saccades. Kori, A., Miyashita, N., Kato, M., Hikosaka, O., Usui, S., Matsumura, M. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I clinical features and MRI in families with SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3. Bürk, K., Abele, M., Fetter, M., Dichgans, J., Skalej, M., Laccone, F., Didierjean, O., Brice, A., Klockgether, T. Brain (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Relationship between a GABAA alpha 6 Pro385Ser substitution and benzodiazepine sensitivity. Iwata, N., Cowley, D.S., Radel, M., Roy-Byrne, P.P., Goldman, D. The American journal of psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Ventilatory response to brief arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep is greater in men than in women. Jordan, A.S., Eckert, D.J., Catcheside, P.G., McEvoy, R.D. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Different heart rate patterns in obstructive apneas during NREM sleep. Bonsignore, M.R., Romano, S., Marrone, O., Chiodi, M., Bonsignore, G. Sleep. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Nitric oxide production by brain stem neurons is required for normal performance of eye movements in alert animals. Moreno-López, B., Escudero, M., Delgado-Garcia, J.M., Estrada, C. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Catecholamine depletion produces irrepressible saccadic eye movements in normal humans. Tychsen, L., Sitaram, N. Ann. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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  29. Versive eye movements elicited by cortical stimulation of the human brain. Godoy, J., Lüders, H., Dinner, D.S., Morris, H.H., Wyllie, E. Neurology (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Vestibulo-oculomotor behaviour in rats following a transient unilateral vestibular loss induced by lidocaine. Magnusson, A.K., Tham, R. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
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  32. Eye position and eye velocity integrators reside in separate brainstem nuclei. Pastor, A.M., De la Cruz, R.R., Baker, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Lack of delta waves and sleep disturbances during non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice lacking alpha1G-subunit of T-type calcium channels. Lee, J., Kim, D., Shin, H.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Prostaglandin D synthase gene is involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Pinzar, E., Kanaoka, Y., Inui, T., Eguchi, N., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Influenza virus-induced sleep responses in mice with targeted disruptions in neuronal or inducible nitric oxide synthases. Chen, L., Duricka, D., Nelson, S., Mukherjee, S., Bohnet, S.G., Taishi, P., Majde, J.A., Krueger, J.M. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  37. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor promotes sleep in rats and rabbits. Kushikata, T., Kubota, T., Fang, J., Krueger, J.M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  41. Functional coupling of the stabilizing eye and head reflexes during horizontal and vertical linear motion in the cat. Borel, L., Lacour, M. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1992) [Pubmed]
  42. NMDA receptors are involved in temporal integration in the oculomotor system of the cat. Mettens, P., Cheron, G., Godaux, E. Neuroreport (1994) [Pubmed]
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  44. Irresistible onset of sleep during acute levodopa challenge in a patient with multiple system atrophy (MSA): placebo-controlled, polysomnographic case report. Högl, B., Seppi, K., Brandauer, E., Wenning, G., Poewe, W. Mov. Disord. (2001) [Pubmed]
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