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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cerebrospinal fluid beta chemokine concentrations in neurocognitively impaired individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Macrophages express the chemokine receptor CCR-5, a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry. This receptor is ligated by beta chemokines, which influence HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication in CCR-5-bearing cells in vitro and could influence the course of infection in the central nervous system. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 73 HIV-infected men were assayed for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). Distributions of all three were positively skewed. CSF chemokine concentrations were correlated with each other and were higher in demented patients. In a multivariate analysis, demented subjects were more likely to have detectable CSF MIP-1alpha, elevated CSF HIV RNA levels, and lower CD4+ cell counts. However, among those with detectable CSF MIP-1alpha, levels were lower in demented patients. CSF beta chemokine elevation is consistent with the macrophage activation known to occur in dementia and with studies of beta chemokine mRNA expression in the brain. Low, but detectable, levels of CSF MIP-1alpha were strongly associated with dementia, suggesting that higher levels may have neuroprotective effects.[1]


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