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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

CD4 Lymphocyte Count

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Disease relevance of CD4 Lymphocyte Count

  • Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. The European-Australian Collaborative Group [1].
  • Treatment-induced changes in the plasma HIV-1 RNA level and the CD4+ lymphocyte count, taken together, are valid predictors of the clinical progression of HIV-related disease and can be used to assess the efficacy of zidovudine and possibly other antiretroviral drugs as well [2].
  • The protease inhibitor ritonavir is well tolerated and has a potent antiviral effect, as shown by substantial decreases in plasma viremia and significant elevations in CD4 cell counts [3].
  • Those assigned to late therapy initially received placebo and began zidovudine when their CD4+ counts fell below 0.2 x 10(9) per liter (200 per cubic millimeter) or when the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed [4].
  • We studied eight HIV-infected homosexual men (in either group IV of the classification of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or group II, with a CD4 cell count of < or = 10 per cubic millimeter) who were referred because of cholangitis for which no causative agent had been found by standard tests [5].

Psychiatry related information on CD4 Lymphocyte Count


High impact information on CD4 Lymphocyte Count


Chemical compound and disease context of CD4 Lymphocyte Count

  • We evaluated a pyridinone non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, L-697,661, in separate six-week double-blind trials in patients with HIV-1 infection whose CD4 counts ranged from 200 to 500 cells per cubic millimeter (68 patients) or less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter (67 patients) [12].
  • Cells from HIV+ individuals with CD4(+) counts < 200 cells/mm3 (representing individuals at high clinical risk for P. carinii pneumonia) demonstrated the lowest levels of P. carinii phagocytosis and mannose receptor endocytosis [13].
  • We evaluated saquinavir, an orally active, selective inhibitor of HIV proteinase, in a randomised, double-blind, dose-ranging study in 49 zidovudine-naive HIV-positive patients with few or no symptoms and CD4 cell counts of 500 or less [14].
  • Amprenavir/abacavir resulted in median plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions of 1.8 log10 copies/ml, and median CD4 cell count increases of 138 x 10(6) cells/mm3 [15].
  • RESULTS: At week 4, amprenavir monotherapy (900, 1,050, or 1,200 mg twice daily) resulted in marked decreases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (1.3-1.6 log10 copies/ml), and substantial increases in CD4 cell counts in the two dose groups who received 1,050 mg twice daily (118 x 10(6) cells/mm3) or 1,200 mg twice daily (114 x 10(6) cells/mm3) [15].

Biological context of CD4 Lymphocyte Count

  • Monitoring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in addition to CD4+ lymphocyte count improves assessment of antiretroviral therapeutic response. ACTG 241 Protocol Virology Substudy Team [16].
  • No decrease in CD4 cell counts was seen in HIV seronegative hemophiliacs when the data for children under age 6 years were excluded from the analysis. beta 2-microglobulin levels and CD8 cell counts remained unchanged [17].
  • The presence of serum p24 antigen, syncytium-inducing (S1) phenotype, a HIV-1 RNA load greater than the median (32495 RNA copies/ml), CD4 cell counts lower than 200/mm3 and clinical CDC category C were all baseline features associated with more rapid development of the mutant RT215 genotype in the univariate analysis [18].
  • The zidovudine IC50 value correlated positively with log10 plasma HIV-1 RNA (P = 0.02) and negatively with the CD4 cell count (P = 0.004) [19].
  • In a retrospective study we evaluated the effect of the SNPs on CD4 cell count recovery in response to antiretroviral treatment with PIs, and obtained statistically significant evidence that suggested marginal association of the SNP at MDR1 1236 but not at MDR1 2677 or MDR1 3435 [20].

Anatomical context of CD4 Lymphocyte Count


Associations of CD4 Lymphocyte Count with chemical compounds


Gene context of CD4 Lymphocyte Count

  • A discrete population of CD45 double intermediate RA(+)/RO(+) CD4(+) cells was also preferentially expanded in the IL-2 group, and the number of these cells strongly correlated with the total CD4(+) count [29].
  • The unexpected inability of these cells to differentiate was associated with a high CD38 expression and a weak spontaneous production of Ig or anti-HIV-1 antibodies in patients with a high viral load and a low CD4+ lymphocyte count [30].
  • CONCLUSIONS: IL-2 at doses that significantly increase CD4 cell counts does not induce dramatic modifications in the chemokine/chemokine receptor system [31].
  • The effects of the CCR5 and CCR2 mutations were genetically independent and similar in the magnitude of their protective effect on progression to a CD4 count <200 cells [32].
  • The CD4+ cell count, intracellular cytokine levels, beta-chemokine levels in plasma, beta-chemokine production by PBMNCs, and expression of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in CD4+ cells were evaluated [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CD4 Lymphocyte Count


  1. Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. The European-Australian Collaborative Group. Cooper, D.A., Gatell, J.M., Kroon, S., Clumeck, N., Millard, J., Goebel, F.D., Bruun, J.N., Stingl, G., Melville, R.L., González-Lahoz, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte counts and the risk of progression to AIDS. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on AIDS. O'Brien, W.A., Hartigan, P.M., Martin, D., Esinhart, J., Hill, A., Benoit, S., Rubin, M., Simberkoff, M.S., Hamilton, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. A preliminary study of ritonavir, an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease, to treat HIV-1 infection. Markowitz, M., Saag, M., Powderly, W.G., Hurley, A.M., Hsu, A., Valdes, J.M., Henry, D., Sattler, F., La Marca, A., Leonard, J.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. A controlled trial of early versus late treatment with zidovudine in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Results of the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study. Hamilton, J.D., Hartigan, P.M., Simberkoff, M.S., Day, P.L., Diamond, G.R., Dickinson, G.M., Drusano, G.L., Egorin, M.J., George, W.L., Gordin, F.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Microsporidia infection in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus and unexplained cholangitis. Pol, S., Romana, C.A., Richard, S., Amouyal, P., Desportes-Livage, I., Carnot, F., Pays, J.F., Berthelot, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Predictive markers of AIDS dementia complex: CD4 cell count and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin. Brew, B.J., Dunbar, N., Pemberton, L., Kaldor, J. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Characteristics of HIV-infected men with low serum testosterone levels. Kopicko, J.J., Momodu, I., Adedokun, A., Hoffman, M., Clark, R.A., Kissinger, P. International journal of STD & AIDS. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Discontinuation of prophylaxis for Mycobacterium avium complex disease in HIV-infected patients who have a response to antiretroviral therapy. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. El-Sadr, W.M., Burman, W.J., Grant, L.B., Matts, J.P., Hafner, R., Crane, L., Zeh, D., Gallagher, B., Mannheimer, S.B., Martinez, A., Gordin, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The care of HIV-infected adults in the United States. HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study Consortium. Bozzette, S.A., Berry, S.H., Duan, N., Frankel, M.R., Leibowitz, A.A., Lefkowitz, D., Emmons, C.A., Senterfitt, J.W., Berk, M.L., Morton, S.C., Shapiro, M.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. Gulick, R.M., Mellors, J.W., Havlir, D., Eron, J.J., Gonzalez, C., McMahon, D., Richman, D.D., Valentine, F.T., Jonas, L., Meibohm, A., Emini, E.A., Chodakewitz, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine, and zalcitabine. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Collier, A.C., Coombs, R.W., Schoenfeld, D.A., Bassett, R.L., Timpone, J., Baruch, A., Jones, M., Facey, K., Whitacre, C., McAuliffe, V.J., Friedman, H.M., Merigan, T.C., Reichman, R.C., Hooper, C., Corey, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. A short-term clinical evaluation of L-697,661, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. L-697,661 Working Group. Saag, M.S., Emini, E.A., Laskin, O.L., Douglas, J., Lapidus, W.I., Schleif, W.A., Whitley, R.J., Hildebrand, C., Byrnes, V.W., Kappes, J.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Reduced binding and phagocytosis of Pneumocystis carinii by alveolar macrophages from persons infected with HIV-1 correlates with mannose receptor downregulation. Koziel, H., Eichbaum, Q., Kruskal, B.A., Pinkston, P., Rogers, R.A., Armstrong, M.Y., Richards, F.F., Rose, R.M., Ezekowitz, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Safety and activity of saquinavir in HIV infection. Kitchen, V.S., Skinner, C., Ariyoshi, K., Lane, E.A., Duncan, I.B., Burckhardt, J., Burger, H.U., Bragman, K., Pinching, A.J., Weber, J.N. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. A dose-ranging study to evaluate the antiretroviral activity and safety of amprenavir alone and in combination with abacavir in HIV-infected adults with limited antiretroviral experience. Schooley, R.T., Clumeck, N., Haubrich, R., Thompson, M., Danner, S.A., van Der Ende, M.E., Sereni, D., Antunes, F., Blake, D., Myers, R.E., Tisdale, M., Millard, J., Mustafa, N., Nacci, P. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Monitoring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in addition to CD4+ lymphocyte count improves assessment of antiretroviral therapeutic response. ACTG 241 Protocol Virology Substudy Team. Hughes, M.D., Johnson, V.A., Hirsch, M.S., Bremer, J.W., Elbeik, T., Erice, A., Kuritzkes, D.R., Scott, W.A., Spector, S.A., Basgoz, N., Fischl, M.A., D'Aquila, R.T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Immune status of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and seronegative hemophiliacs infused for 3.5 years with recombinant factor VIII. The Kogenate Study Group. Mannucci, P.M., Brettler, D.B., Aledort, L.M., Lusher, J.M., Abildgaard, C.F., Schwartz, R.S., Hurst, D. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Viraemia and p24 antigenaemia are independent risk factors for the emergency of a zidovudine-resistant genotype in nucleoside analogue-treated HIV-1 infection. Relimpio, F., Rey, C., Pineda, J.A., Leal, M., Caruz, A., Sánchez-Quijano, A., Lissen, E. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Zidovudine resensitization and dual HIV-1 resistance to zidovudine and lamivudine in the delta lamivudine roll-over study. Masquelier, B., Descamps, D., Carrière, I., Ferchal, F., Collin, G., Denayrolles, M., Ruffault, A., Chanzy, B., Izopet, J., Buffet-Janvresse, C., Schmitt, M.P., Race, E., Fleury, H.J., Aboulker, J.P., Yeni, P., Brun-Vézinet, F. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the multidrug resistance-1 gene on the cellular export of nelfinavir and its clinical implication for highly active antiretroviral therapy. Zhu, D., Taguchi-Nakamura, H., Goto, M., Odawara, T., Nakamura, T., Yamada, H., Kotaki, H., Sugiura, W., Iwamoto, A., Kitamura, Y. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: clinical manifestations and their relationship to immune deficiency. A report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Kaslow, R.A., Phair, J.P., Friedman, H.B., Lyter, D., Solomon, R.E., Dudley, J., Polk, B.F., Blackwelder, W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. CD4+ T-cell death induced by infectious and noninfectious HIV-1: role of type 1 interferon-dependent, TRAIL/DR5-mediated apoptosis. Herbeuval, J.P., Grivel, J.C., Boasso, A., Hardy, A.W., Chougnet, C., Dolan, M.J., Yagita, H., Lifson, J.D., Shearer, G.M. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Filgrastim prevents severe neutropenia and reduces infective morbidity in patients with advanced HIV infection: results of a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. G-CSF 930101 Study Group. Kuritzkes, D.R., Parenti, D., Ward, D.J., Rachlis, A., Wong, R.J., Mallon, K.P., Rich, W.J., Jacobson, M.A. AIDS (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Serum lipids, glucose homeostasis and abdominal adipose tissue distribution in protease inhibitor-treated and naive HIV-infected children. Bitnun, A., Sochett, E., Babyn, P., Holowka, S., Stephens, D., Read, S., King, S.M. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Improvement of the predictive value of CD4+ lymphocyte count by beta 2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin A and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The Multicentre Cohort Study Group. Schwartländer, B., Bek, B., Skarabis, H., Koch, J., Burkowitz, J., Koch, M.A. AIDS (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. A comparison of immediate with deferred zidovudine therapy for asymptomatic HIV-infected adults with CD4 cell counts of 500 or more per cubic millimeter. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Volberding, P.A., Lagakos, S.W., Grimes, J.M., Stein, D.S., Rooney, J., Meng, T.C., Fischl, M.A., Collier, A.C., Phair, J.P., Hirsch, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. The relation of virologic and immunologic markers to clinical outcomes after nucleoside therapy in HIV-infected adults with 200 to 500 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 175 Virology Study Team. Katzenstein, D.A., Hammer, S.M., Hughes, M.D., Gundacker, H., Jackson, J.B., Fiscus, S., Rasheed, S., Elbeik, T., Reichman, R., Japour, A., Merigan, T.C., Hirsch, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or aerosolized pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 021. Hardy, W.D., Feinberg, J., Finkelstein, D.M., Power, M.E., He, W., Kaczka, C., Frame, P.T., Holmes, M., Waskin, H., Fass, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Long-term effects of intermittent interleukin 2 therapy in patients with HIV infection: characterization of a novel subset of CD4(+)/CD25(+) T cells. Sereti, I., Martinez-Wilson, H., Metcalf, J.A., Baseler, M.W., Hallahan, C.W., Hahn, B., Hengel, R.L., Davey, R.T., Kovacs, J.A., Lane, H.C. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Impairment of B-lymphocyte differentiation induced by dual triggering of the B-cell antigen receptor and CD40 in advanced HIV-1-disease. Conge, A.M., Tarte, K., Reynes, J., Segondy, M., Gerfaux, J., Zembala, M., Vendrell, J.P. AIDS (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Chemokine and chemokine receptor expression after combined anti-HIV-1 interleukin-2 therapy. Blanco, J., Cabrera, C., Jou, A., Ruiz, L., Clotet, B., Esté, J.A. AIDS (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Chemokine receptor polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. Easterbrook, P.J., Rostron, T., Ives, N., Troop, M., Gazzard, B.G., Rowland-Jones, S.L. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Evaluation of the putative role of C-C chemokines as protective factors of HIV-1 infection in seronegative hemophiliacs exposed to contaminated hemoderivatives. Barretina, J., Blanco, J., Gutiérrez, A., Puig, L., Altisent, C., Espanol, T., Caragol, I., Clotet, B., Esté, J.A. Transfusion (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Controlled trial of interleukin-2 infusions in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Kovacs, J.A., Vogel, S., Albert, J.M., Falloon, J., Davey, R.T., Walker, R.E., Polis, M.A., Spooner, K., Metcalf, J.A., Baseler, M., Fyfe, G., Lane, H.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. Mellors, J.W., Muñoz, A., Giorgi, J.V., Margolick, J.B., Tassoni, C.J., Gupta, P., Kingsley, L.A., Todd, J.A., Saah, A.J., Detels, R., Phair, J.P., Rinaldo, C.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Clinical efficacy of monotherapy with stavudine compared with zidovudine in HIV-infected, zidovudine-experienced patients. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Bristol-Myers Squibb Stavudine/019 Study Group. Spruance, S.L., Pavia, A.T., Mellors, J.W., Murphy, R., Gathe, J., Stool, E., Jemsek, J.G., Dellamonica, P., Cross, A., Dunkle, L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Usefulness of total lymphocyte count in monitoring highly active antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. Badri, M., Wood, R. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. High incidence of atypical mycobacteriosis in African HIV-infected adults with low CD4 cell counts: a 6-year cohort study in Côte d'Ivoire. Bonard, D., Messou, E., Seyler, C., Vincent, V., Gabillard, D., Anglaret, X. AIDS (2004) [Pubmed]
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