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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 in a mouse model of group B streptococcal arthritis.

Intravenous inoculation of CD1 mice with 10(7) CFU of type IV group B Streptococcus ( GBS IV) results in a high incidence of diffuse septic arthritis. In this study the roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6 in articular pathology were evaluated. Cytokine levels were quantified in the serum and joints by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in mice injected with GBS IV and tested or not tested with pentoxifylline (PTF), a methylxanthine that affects cytokine production. PTF was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 1 mg/mouse (50 mg/kg of body weight) 1 h after GBS infection and then at 24-h intervals for 4 days. High levels of IL-1beta and IL-6, but not TNF-alpha, were detected in the joints of mice injected with GBS IV from 5 to 15 days after infection, when articular lesions were most frequent and severe. IL-1beta and IL-6 concentrations in the joints significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded those detected in the serum, confirming a strong local production. PTF treatment resulted in a strong reduction of cytokine production and in a marked decrease in both the incidence and severity of arthritis. Inoculation of exogenous murine recombinant IL-1beta or IL-6 in mice treated with GBS IV plus PTF resulted in an incidence and severity of articular lesions similar to those obtained with inoculation of GBS IV alone. No significant effect was obtained with TNF-alpha administration. These data show a strong involvement of IL-1beta and IL-6, but not TNF-alpha, in the pathogenesis of GBS arthritis.[1]


  1. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 in a mouse model of group B streptococcal arthritis. Tissi, L., Puliti, M., Barluzzi, R., Orefici, G., von Hunolstein, C., Bistoni, F. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
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