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Chemical Compound Review

Agapurin     3,7-dimethyl-1-(5- oxohexyl)purine-2,6-dione

Synonyms: Pentopak, Pentoxil, Torental, Trental, Oxpentifylline, ...
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Disease relevance of pentoxifylline


Psychiatry related information on pentoxifylline


High impact information on pentoxifylline


Chemical compound and disease context of pentoxifylline


Biological context of pentoxifylline


Anatomical context of pentoxifylline


Associations of pentoxifylline with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pentoxifylline

  • IL-6 and IL-10 levels were dramatically up-regulated (50x) in the PTX group, and at lower levels in other experimental groups [24].
  • We have also demonstrated that the adhesion of tumor cells to IL-1 beta-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells can be inhibited by anti-NF kappa B reagents such as N-acetyl L-cysteine, aspirin, or pentoxifylline [29].
  • In intoxicated obese mice, pentoxifylline fully prevented the increase in plasma TNF-alpha the decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB activity, and the increase in hepatic caspase-3, and it also decreased hepatic triglycerides [30].
  • Interestingly, the grafts from the PTX-treated recipients continued to display rare, isolated VCAM-1 positive cells in the interstitium, which may be dendritic cells [31].
  • We report that the expression of VCAM-1 on isograft endothelia that was induced with anti-CD3 MAb was blocked by simultaneous treatment with either pentoxifylline, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR-Fc), anti-IL4 MAb, or soluble IL4R, but not by anti-IFN-gamma MAb [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pentoxifylline


  1. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of children with new-onset type I diabetes mellitus. MacDonald, M.J., Shahidi, N.T., Allen, D.B., Lustig, R.H., Mitchell, T.L., Cornwell, S.T. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Pentoxifylline inhibits interleukin-2-induced toxicity in C57BL/6 mice but preserves antitumor efficacy. Edwards, M.J., Heniford, B.T., Klar, E.A., Doak, K.W., Miller, F.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Human cytomegalovirus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells induce HIV-1 replication via a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated mechanism. Peterson, P.K., Gekker, G., Chao, C.C., Hu, S.X., Edelman, C., Balfour, H.H., Verhoef, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Pentoxifylline for treatment of venous leg ulcers: a systematic review. Jull, A., Waters, J., Arroll, B. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Use of pentoxifylline in membranous nephropathy. Ducloux, D., Bresson-Vautrin, C., Chalopin, J. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. A randomized controlled trial of pentoxifylline for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis. Kapetanos, D., Kokozidis, G., Christodoulou, D., Mistakidis, K., Sigounas, D., Dimakopoulos, K., Kitis, G., Tsianos, E.V. Gastrointest. Endosc. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Conservative management of intermittent claudication. Radack, K., Wyderski, R.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Yohimbine and pentoxifylline in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Nessel, M.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Pentoxifylline and panic attacks. Opler, L.A., Gorman, J.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Pentoxifylline-induced musical hallucinations. Gilbert, G.J. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of male fertility disturbances. Current concepts. Schill, W.B., Michalopoulos, M. Drugs (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Reperfusion injury after liver preservation for transplantation. Lemasters, J.J., Thurman, R.G. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. c-Rel is a target of pentoxifylline-mediated inhibition of T lymphocyte activation. Wang, W., Tam, W.F., Hughes, C.C., Rath, S., Sen, R. Immunity (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Detection of interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor in normal humans after intravenous endotoxin: the effect of antiinflammatory agents. Martich, G.D., Danner, R.L., Ceska, M., Suffredini, A.F. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Dexamethasone and pentoxifylline inhibit endotoxin-induced cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis at separate points in the signaling pathway. Han, J., Thompson, P., Beutler, B. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Synergistic effects of pentoxifylline and dapsone in leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Nürnberg, W., Grabbe, J., Czarnetzki, B.M. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Warfarin versus dipyridamole-aspirin and pentoxifylline-aspirin for the prevention of prosthetic heart valve thromboembolism: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Mok, C.K., Boey, J., Wang, R., Chan, T.K., Cheung, K.L., Lee, P.K., Chow, J., Ng, R.P., Tse, T.F. Circulation (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Cooperative inhibition of NF-kappa B and Tat-induced superactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat. Biswas, D.K., Ahlers, C.M., Dezube, B.J., Pardee, A.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis by pentoxifylline or by a monoclonal anti-tissue factor antibody in chimpanzees. Levi, M., ten Cate, H., Bauer, K.A., van der Poll, T., Edgington, T.S., Büller, H.R., van Deventer, S.J., Hack, C.E., ten Cate, J.W., Rosenberg, R.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of a constitutive NF-kappa B-like activity is essential for proliferation of cultured bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. Bellas, R.E., Lee, J.S., Sonenshein, G.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, but not Fas, mediates hepatocellular apoptosis in the murine ischemic liver. Rüdiger, H.A., Clavien, P.A. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Randomised investigation of effects of pentoxifylline on left-ventricular performance in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Sliwa, K., Skudicky, D., Candy, G., Wisenbaugh, T., Sareli, P. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha release and leukocyte margination in indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats. Santucci, L., Fiorucci, S., Di Matteo, F.M., Morelli, A. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Kupffer cell-dependent TNF-alpha signaling mediates injury in the arterialized small-for-size liver transplantation in the mouse. Tian, Y., Jochum, W., Georgiev, P., Moritz, W., Graf, R., Clavien, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Localization of transfused neutrophils to site of infection during treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and pentoxifylline. Montgomery, B., Bianco, J.A., Jacobsen, A., Singer, J.W. Blood (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Macrophage role in the anti-prostate cancer response to one class of antiangiogenic agents. Joseph, I.B., Isaacs, J.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Protection from endotoxic shock in mice by pharmacologic inhibition of phosphatidic acid. Rice, G.C., Brown, P.A., Nelson, R.J., Bianco, J.A., Singer, J.W., Bursten, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Intensive vascular training in stage IIb of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. The additive effects of intravenous prostaglandin E1 or intravenous pentoxifylline during training. Scheffler, P., de la Hamette, D., Gross, J., Mueller, H., Schieffer, H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of anti-nuclear factor kappa B reagents in blocking adhesion of human cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells. Tozawa, K., Sakurada, S., Kohri, K., Okamoto, T. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Alcohol increases tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreases nuclear factor-kappab to activate hepatic apoptosis in genetically obese mice. Robin, M.A., Demeilliers, C., Sutton, A., Paradis, V., Maisonneuve, C., Dubois, S., Poirel, O., Lettéron, P., Pessayre, D., Fromenty, B. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Regulation of endothelial VCAM-1 expression in murine cardiac grafts. Expression of allograft endothelial VCAM-1 can be manipulated with antagonist of IFN-alpha or IL-4 and is not required for allograft rejection. Bergese, S.D., Huang, E.H., Pelletier, R.P., Widmer, M.B., Ferguson, R.M., Orosz, C.G. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Regulation of endothelial VCAM-1 expression in murine cardiac grafts. Roles for TNF and IL4. Bergese, S., Pelletier, R., Vallera, D., Widmer, M., Orosz, C. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Oxpentifylline in endotoxaemia. Zabel, P., Wolter, D.T., Schönharting, M.M., Schade, U.F. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. A randomized controlled trial of pentoxifylline for the prevention of regimen-related toxicities in patients undergoing allogeneic marrow transplantation. Clift, R.A., Bianco, J.A., Appelbaum, F.R., Buckner, C.D., Singer, J.W., Bakke, L., Bensinger, W.I., Bowden, R.A., McDonald, G.B., Schubert, M. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Protective effect of vasodilators on liver function after long hypothermic preservation: a study in the isolated perfused rat liver. Chazouillères, O., Ballet, F., Chrétien, Y., Marteau, P., Rey, C., Maillard, D., Poupon, R. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of pentoxifylline pretreatment on Kupffer cells in rat liver transplantation. Kozaki, K., Egawa, H., Bermudez, L., Keefe, E.B., So, S.K., Esquivel, C.O. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
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