The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Agonist-induced, G protein-dependent and -independent down-regulation of the mu opioid receptor. The receptor is a direct substrate for protein-tyrosine kinase.

The mu opioid receptor ( MOR) has been shown to desensitize after 1 h of exposure to the opioid peptide, [D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol(5)]enkephalin (DAMGO), largely by the loss of receptors from the cell surface and receptor down-regulation. We have previously shown that the Thr(394) in the carboxyl tail is essential for agonist-induced early desensitization, presumably by serving as a primary phosphorylation site for G protein-coupled receptor kinase. Using a T394A mutant receptor, we determined that Thr(394) was also responsible for mu opioid receptor down-regulation. The T394A mutant receptor displayed 50% reduction of receptor down-regulation (14.8%) compared with wild type receptor (34%) upon 1 h of exposure to DAMGO. Agonist-induced T394A receptor down-regulation was unaffected by pertussis toxin treatment, indicating involvement of a mechanism independent of G protein function. Interestingly, pertussis toxin-insensitive T394A receptor down-regulation was completely inhibited by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein. Tyrosine kinase inhibition blocked wild type MOR down-regulation by 50%, and the genistein-resistant wild type MOR down-regulation was completely pertussis toxin-sensitive. Following DAMGO stimulation, MOR was shown to be phosphorylated at tyrosine residue(s), indicating that the receptor was a direct substrate for tyrosine kinase action. Mutagenesis of the four intracellular tyrosine residues resulted in complete inhibition of the G protein-insensitive MOR internalization. Therefore, agonist-induced MOR down-regulation appears to be mediated by two distinct cellular signal transduction pathways. One is G protein-dependent and GRK-dependent, which can be abolished by pertussis toxin treatment of wild type MOR or by mutagenesis of Thr(394). The other novel pathway is G protein-independent but tyrosine kinase-dependent, blocked by genistein treatment, and one in which Thr(394) has no regulatory role but phosphorylation of tyrosine residues appears essential.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities