The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Grk1  -  G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: RK, Rhodopsin kinase, Rhok
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Grk1

  • Furthermore, eNOS activation was not dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation, and pretreatment of endothelial cells with pertussis toxin as well as overexpression of a dominant negative G-protein-coupled receptor kinase construct that sequesters betagamma subunits inhibited Akt phosphorylation and NO synthesis [1].
  • We have found that significantly low levels of expression of rhodopsin kinase (RK) and alphaA-crystallin may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration in the RCS rat (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999,40:2788-2794) [2].
  • Rhodopsin kinase (RK), an enzyme probably unique to the mammalian eye, is reported here to resemble the retinal S-Ag in its capacity to induce uveitis in experimental animals [3].

High impact information on Grk1


Chemical compound and disease context of Grk1


Biological context of Grk1


Anatomical context of Grk1


Associations of Grk1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Grk1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grk1

  • Analysis by SDS-PAGE of ROS proteins and by western blot using antibodies against opsin, rhodopsin kinase (RK), recoverin, or arrestin demonstrated that a 20-kDa protein and RK were selectively less abundant in RCS than in control rats [22].
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot analysis were carried out using antibodies against RK and G(talpha) (alpha subunit of G(t)) in the STZ-induced diabetic retina and the control retina [11].


  1. Endothelin-1 activates endothelial cell nitric-oxide synthase via heterotrimeric G-protein betagamma subunit signaling to protein jinase B/Akt. Liu, S., Premont, R.T., Kontos, C.D., Huang, J., Rockey, D.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Low expression of rhodopsin kinase in pineal gland in Royal College of Surgeons rat. Takano, Y., Ohguro, H., Ohguro, I., Yamazaki, H., Mamiya, K., Ishikawa, F., Nakazawa, M. Curr. Eye Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Resemblance between rhodopsin kinase and S-antigen induced uveitis. Nussenblatt, R.B., Shichi, H., Kuwabara, T., Cevario, S., Gery, I. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of cytoplasmic tail of the type 1A angiotensin II receptor in agonist- and phorbol ester-induced desensitization. Tang, H., Guo, D.F., Porter, J.P., Wanaka, Y., Inagami, T. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. A G protein-coupled receptor kinase induces Xenopus oocyte maturation. Wang, J., Liu, X.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Agonist-induced, G protein-dependent and -independent down-regulation of the mu opioid receptor. The receptor is a direct substrate for protein-tyrosine kinase. Pak, Y., O'Dowd, B.F., Wang, J.B., George, S.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and rat aorta. Regulation by angiotensin II and hypertension. Ishizaka, N., Alexander, R.W., Laursen, J.B., Kai, H., Fukui, T., Oppermann, M., Lefkowitz, R.J., Lyons, P.R., Griendling, K.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor desensitization due to increased beta-adrenoceptor kinase activity in chronic uremia. Leineweber, K., Heinroth-Hoffmann, I., Pönicke, K., Abraham, G., Osten, B., Brodde, O.E. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Concomitant increase of G protein-coupled receptor kinase activity and uncoupling of beta-adrenergic receptors in rat myometrium at parturition. Simon, V., Mhaouty-Kodja, S., Legrand, C., Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Upregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in heart failure due to volume overload. Wang, X., Sentex, E., Saini, H.K., Chapman, D., Dhalla, N.S. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Changes in rhodopsin kinase and transducin in the rat retina in early-stage diabetes. Kim, Y.H., Kim, Y.S., Noh, H.S., Kang, S.S., Cheon, E.W., Park, S.K., Lee, B.J., Choi, W.S., Cho, G.J. Exp. Eye Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Receptor phosphorylation mediates estradiol reduction of alpha2-adrenoceptor coupling to G protein in the hypothalamus of female rats. Ansonoff, M.A., Etgen, A.M. Endocrine (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Chronic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation enhances the expression of G-Protein coupled receptor kinases, GRK2 and GRK5, in both the heart and peripheral lymphocytes. Oyama, N., Urasawa, K., Kaneta, S., Sakai, H., Saito, T., Takagi, C., Yoshida, I., Kitabatake, A., Tsutsui, H. Circ. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Agonist-dependent phosphorylation and desensitization of the rat A3 adenosine receptor. Evidence for a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated mechanism. Palmer, T.M., Benovic, J.L., Stiles, G.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Estrogen increases G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 in the cortex of female rats. Ansonoff, M.A., Etgen, A.M. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of protein kinase C in the desensitization of rat pancreatic islets to cholinergic stimulation. Verspohl, E.J., Wienecke, A. J. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Involvement of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 and 6 in rapid desensitization of dopamine D1 receptor in rat IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells. Fraga, S., Jose, P.A., Soares-da-Silva, P. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of hypothyroidism on G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression levels in rat liver, lung, and heart. Penela, P., Barradas, M., Alvarez-Dolado, M., Muñoz, A., Mayor, F. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Halothane facilitates the translocation of GRK-2 and phosphorylation of beta2-adrenergic receptor in rat synaptosomes. Saito, S., Kadoi, Y., Ohyama, A., Goto, F. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Beta-adrenergic receptor trafficking by exercise in rat adipocytes: roles of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2, beta-arrestin-2, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ogasawara, J., Sanpei, M., Rahman, N., Sakurai, T., Kizaki, T., Hitomi, Y., Ohno, H., Izawa, T. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Receptor kinase-dependent desensitization of the muscarinic K+ current in rat atrial cells. Shui, Z., Boyett, M.R., Zang, W.J., Haga, T., Kameyama, K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Low expression of alphaA-crystallins and rhodopsin kinase of photoreceptors in retinal dystrophy rat. Maeda, A., Ohguro, H., Maeda, T., Nakagawa, T., Kuroki, Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities