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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Middle ear defects associated with the double knock out mutation of murine goosecoid and Msx1 genes.

A number of developmental regulatory genes, including homeobox genes, are dynamically expressed in the mammalian cephalic ectomesenchyme during craniofacial morphogenesis. Owing to the vast amount of gene knock out experiments, functions of such genes are now being revealed in the mammalian skeletal patterning process. The murine goosecoid (Gsc) and Msx1 genes are expressed during craniofacial development and each mutant mouse displays intriguing facial abnormalities including those of middle ear ossicles, suggesting that both genes play roles in spatial programming of craniofacial regions. In order to examine whether these genes could function in concert to direct particular craniofacial morphogenesis, double knock out mice were analyzed. The phenotype of the double mutant mice was restricted to the first arch derivatives and was apparently additive of the single gene mutant mice, implying region specific genetic interactions of these homeobox genes expressed in overlapping regions of middle ear forming ectomesenchyme. Our results also suggested that the patterning of distal portions of the malleus depends on the tympanic membrane, for which normal expressions of both the genes are prerequisite.[1]


  1. Middle ear defects associated with the double knock out mutation of murine goosecoid and Msx1 genes. Kuratani, S., Satokata, I., Blum, M., Komatsu, Y., Haraguchi, R., Nakamura, S., Suzuki, K., Kosai, K., Maas, R., Yamada, G. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) (1999) [Pubmed]
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