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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Malleus

  • The audiologic test results in the fixed malleus cases reviewed for this study often presented a misleading picture, sometimes mimicking stapedial otosclerosis with a characteristic Carhart's notch and sometimes indistinguishable from sensorineural presbycusis [1].

High impact information on Malleus

  • Contrary to expectations, murine Bapx1 does not affect the articulation of the malleus and incus [2].
  • Msx genes, thus, appear to act in a cell autonomous manner, possibly by regulating Bmp4 expression, in the formation of the malleus [3].
  • A functional redundancy of Msx1 and Msx2 in the development of the middle ear is suggested by the stronger hypomorphism in the malleus of Msx1(-/-)/Msx2(-/-) embryos, including the absence of the malleal manubrium and the malleal processus brevis [3].
  • These defects included loss of the tympanic ring and malformation of the malleus, phenotypes which were reminiscent of the teratogenic effects of retinoic acid (RA) [4].
  • Fracture of the malleus or incus is detected with axial or coronal images; reformatted images may also be useful [5].

Anatomical context of Malleus


Associations of Malleus with chemical compounds

  • In the case of a missing incus, an assembly prosthesis of dense hydroxyapatite is placed on top of the stapes head and the handle of the malleus, in a pocket between drum membrane and the neck of the malleus [6].
  • Thin sections were cut parallel with, and perpendicular to, the handle of the malleus, stained with haematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue or Giemsa stain and examined under a light microscope [9].
  • One hour after injection, BrdU-labeled cells were found in the handle of the malleus (HM) region and in the annular region of the pars tensa of the TM [10].
  • CONCLUSION: The functional results of the L-shaped Fisch titanium total prosthesis implanted in ears with the stapes but no malleus handle are best at 2 kHz and better than those of comparable columellar titanium prostheses over the remaining tested frequencies [11].

Gene context of Malleus

  • Since normal drilling procedures would result in a sensorineural hearing loss, the argon laser was chosen to remove a bony spur connecting the malleus to the posterior canal wall [12].
  • Reconstruction of hearing when malleus is absent: TORP vs. homograft TMMI [13].
  • Histologic changes in the anterior mallear ligament and the head of the malleus in otosclerosis [14].
  • When the malleus handle was present (n = 126), the PTA-ABG was 11.6+/-6.2 dB, compared with 16.9+/-10.1 dB when it was absent (n = 74), which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) [15].
  • The normal Ca/P ratio for malleus is 2.10, and 2.19 for incus [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Malleus


  1. Primary malleus fixation: diagnosis and treatment. Moon, C.N., Hahn, M.J. Laryngoscope (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Bapx1 regulates patterning in the middle ear: altered regulatory role in the transition from the proximal jaw during vertebrate evolution. Tucker, A.S., Watson, R.P., Lettice, L.A., Yamada, G., Hill, R.E. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Malleal processus brevis is dispensable for normal hearing in mice. Zhang, Z., Zhang, X., Avniel, W.A., Song, Y., Jones, S.M., Jones, T.A., Fermin, C., Chen, Y. Dev. Dyn. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Correlation between loss of middle ear bones and altered goosecoid gene expression in the branchial region following retinoic acid treatment of mouse embryos in vivo. Zhu, C.C., Yamada, G., Blum, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. CT appearances of ossicular injuries. Meriot, P., Veillon, F., Garcia, J.F., Nonent, M., Jezequel, J., Bourjat, P., Bellet, M. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with hydroxyapatite prostheses. Grote, J.J. The American journal of otology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Homograft (allograft) tympanoplasty update. Lesinski, S.G. Laryngoscope (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Comments on "Acoustic Transfer Characteristics in Human Middle Ears Studied by a SQUID Magnetometer Method" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 82, 1646-1654 (1987)]. Goode, R.L., Nakamura, K., Gyo, K., Aritomo, H. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Shrapnell's membrane in a mammal exposed to extreme pressure variations: morphological and radiological observations in the hooded seal. Stenfors, L.E., Bye, H.M., Tikkakoski, T. The Journal of laryngology and otology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Auditory epithelial migration. III: An immunohistologic study using anti-BrdU antibody on tympanic membrane in mouse. Kakoi, H., Anniko, M. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. A new L-shaped titanium prosthesis for total reconstruction of the ossicular chain. Fisch, U., May, J., Linder, T., Naumann, I.C. Otol. Neurotol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of the argon laser in the treatment of malleus fixation. Sands, C.J., Napolitano, N. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Reconstruction of hearing when malleus is absent: TORP vs. homograft TMMI. Lesinski, S.G. Laryngoscope (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Histologic changes in the anterior mallear ligament and the head of the malleus in otosclerosis. Oktay, M.F., Cureoglu, S., Schachern, P.A., Gulbahce, E., Paparella, M.M., Hayasi, H. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Prognostic factors in ossiculoplasty: a statistical staging system. Dornhoffer, J.L., Gardner, E. Otol. Neurotol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. A microanalytical study on human auditory ossicles in normal and pathological conditions. Sánchez-Fernández, J.M., Saint-Gerons, S., Sánchez del Rey, A. Acta Otolaryngol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Electromagnetic semi-implantable hearing device: phase I. Clinical trials. McGee, T.M., Kartush, J.M., Heide, J.C., Bojrab, D.I., Clemis, J.D., Kulick, K.C. Laryngoscope (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Stapedectomy for otosclerosis with malleus fixation. Lippy, W.H., Schuring, A.G., Ziv, M. Archives of otolaryngology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1978) [Pubmed]
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