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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Oxidized low density lipoprotein displaces endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) from plasmalemmal caveolae and impairs eNOS activation.

Hypercholesterolemia-induced vascular disease and atherosclerosis are characterized by a decrease in the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) associates with caveolae and is directly regulated by the caveola protein, caveolin. In the present study, we examined the effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on the subcellular location of eNOS, on eNOS activation, and on caveola cholesterol in endothelial cells. We found that treatment with 10 microgram/ml oxLDL for 60 min caused greater than 90% of eNOS and caveolin to leave caveolae. Treatment with oxLDL also inhibited acetylcholine-induced activation of eNOS but not prostacyclin production. oxLDL did not affect total cellular eNOS abundance. Oxidized LDL also did not affect the palmitoylation, myristoylation or phosphorylation of eNOS. Oxidized LDL, but not native LDL, or HDL depleted caveolae of cholesterol by serving as an acceptor for cholesterol. Cyclodextrin also depleted caveolae of cholesterol and caused eNOS and caveolin to translocate from caveolae. Furthermore, removal of oxLDL allowed eNOS and caveolin to return to caveolae. We conclude that oxLDL-induced depletion of caveola cholesterol causes eNOS to leave caveolae and inhibits acetylcholine-induced activation of the enzyme. This process may be an important mechanism in the early pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.[1]


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