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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Modulation of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade by retinoic acid during neutrophil maturation.

Retinoic acid is a lipophilic derivative of vitamin A that can cause differentiation in a variety of cell types. A large body of evidence has shown that normal retinoid signaling is required for proper neutrophil maturation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have found that calcium/calmodulin dependent (CaM) protein kinase kinase alpha (CaMKKalpha) is upregulated in an immediate early fashion during retinoic acid induced neutrophil maturation. Furthermore, we describe the expression and modulation of various components of the CaM kinase cascade during neutrophil maturation. We have confirmed upregulation of CaMKKalpha protein by Western analysis and further show that CaMKKbeta is expressed, although its protein levels are constant throughout induction. We also find that neutrophil progenitor cells express both CaMKI and CaMKIV transcripts. RNase protection and Western analysis show that CaMKIV is downregulated during neutrophil maturation. In contrast, CaMKI transcript and protein is expressed in uninduced cells and is induced by all-trans retinoic acid. These data represent the first report of a CaM kinase cascade in myeloid cells and suggests that this cascade may mediate some of the well-characterized effects of calcium on neutrophil function. These observations also support the idea that the retinoic acid receptors play a major role in mediating neutrophil specific gene expression and differentiation.[1]


  1. Modulation of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade by retinoic acid during neutrophil maturation. Lawson, N.D., Zain, M., Zibello, T., Picciotto, M.R., Nairn, A.C., Berliner, N. Exp. Hematol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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