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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Loss of fibula in mice overexpressing Hoxc11.

This study demonstrates severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton in mice overexpressing Hoxc11. Consistent with the endogenous expression pattern, the most conspicuous defect in Hoxc11 overexpressing neonates is aplasia/hypoplasia of the fibula. This is preceded at day 15.5 of embryonic development by marked reduction of chondrocyte proliferation, lack of PTHR expressing prehypertrophic cells, and the absence of hypertrophic and calcifying chondrocytes. Combined with the lack of an overt phenotype in the majority of Hoxc11 overexpressing embryos at day 13.5, the data suggest inhibition of chondrocyte differentiation during the elongation phase of the fibula bone as a primary effect of elevated Hoxc11 expression. This interpretation is further corroborated by Hoxc11 reporter gene expression in the joint areas at embryonic day 15.5, suggesting an involvement of the periarticular perichondrium in generating the mutant phenotype.[1]


  1. Loss of fibula in mice overexpressing Hoxc11. Papenbrock, T., Visconti, R.P., Awgulewitsch, A. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
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