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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Functional significance of the interaction of hepatitis A virus RNA with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): opposing effects of GAPDH and polypyrimidine tract binding protein on internal ribosome entry site function.

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cellular enzyme involved in glycolysis, binds specifically to several viral RNAs, but the functional significance of this interaction is uncertain. Both GAPDH and polypyrimidine tract binding protein ( PTB) bind to overlapping sites in stem-loop IIIa of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus. Since the binding of GAPDH destabilizes the RNA secondary structure, we reasoned that GAPDH may suppress the ability of the IRES to direct cap-independent translation, making its effects antagonistic to the translation-enhancing activity of PTB (D. E. Schultz, C. C. Hardin, and S. M. Lemon, J. Biol. Chem. 271:14134-14142, 1996). To test this hypothesis, we constructed plasmids containing a dicistronic transcriptional unit in which the HAV IRES was placed between an upstream GAPDH-coding sequence and a downstream Renilla luciferase (RLuc) sequence. Transfection with this plasmid results in overexpression of GAPDH and in RLuc production as a measure of IRES activity. RLuc activity was compared with that from a control, null-expression plasmid that was identical except for a frameshift mutation within the 5' GAPDH coding sequence. In transfection experiments, GAPDH overexpression significantly suppressed HAV IRES activity in BSC-1 and FRhK-4 cells but not in Huh-7 cells, which have a significantly greater cytoplasmic abundance of PTB. GAPDH suppression of HAV translation was greater with the wild-type HAV IRES than with the IRES from a cell culture-adapted virus (HM175/P16) that has reproducibly higher basal translational activity in BSC-1 cells. Stem-loop IIIa RNA from the latter IRES had significantly lower affinity for GAPDH in filter binding experiments. Thus, the binding of GAPDH to the IRES of HAV suppresses cap-independent viral translation in vivo in African green monkey kidney cells. The enhanced replication capacity of cell culture-adapted HAV in such cells may be due in part to reduced affinity of the viral IRES for GAPDH.[1]


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