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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Directed glycosylation of human coagulation factor X at residue 333. Insight into factor Va-dependent prothrombin catalysis.

Based on homology, amino acids 326-336 (143-154 in chymotrypsin numbering) of factor X (fX) comprise a flexible surface loop, which is susceptible to self-proteolysis and influences substrate catalysis. To investigate the role of this autolysis loop in fX function, a recombinant variant with a new site for asparagine-linked glycosylation has been produced by changing glutamine 333 to asparagine. Q333N fX is activated normally by factor VIIa and tissue factor, factors IXa and VIIIa, and Russell's viper venom. Proteolysis of the loop is prevented by the mutation. Reactivity of the free enzyme toward substrates and inhibitors is attenuated 4-20-fold; relative to wild type fXa, Spectrozyme Xa(TM) hydrolysis is 25%, inhibition by antithrombin III and the tissue factor pathway inhibitor is approximately 20%, and prothrombin activation in the absence of the cofactor Va is only 5%. Surprisingly, activities of the variant and wild type enzymes are equivalent when part of the prothrombinase complex. N-Glycanase cleaves the new oligosaccharide from Q333N fXa leaving aspartic acid. Q333D fXa is approximately 1.6-fold more reactive with Spectrozyme Xa(TM), antithrombin III and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and prothrombin than its glycosylated counterpart, Q333N fXa, but still quite abnormal relative to wild type fXa. Like Q333N fXa, Q333D fXa is fully functional as part of the prothrombinase complex. We conclude that Gln-333 is geographically close to a site of proteolytic degradation but not to activator, cofactor, or membrane binding sites. Mutation of Gln-333 impairs catalytic function, but given normal prothrombin activation by the complexed enzyme, the importance of Gln-333 for catalysis is not manifest in the prothrombinase assembly, suggesting a conformational change in complexed fXa.[1]


  1. Directed glycosylation of human coagulation factor X at residue 333. Insight into factor Va-dependent prothrombin catalysis. Cook, B.C., Rudolph, A.E., Kurumbail, R.G., Porche-Sorbet, R., Miletich, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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