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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Autolysis

  • The Tn551 insertion site of the autolysis-deficient Staphylococcus aureus mutant RUSAL2 was cloned and used to identify the autolysis gene atl in the parent strain, RN450 [1].
  • Penicillin tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, autolysis and the Psa ATP-binding cassette (ABC) manganese permease [2].
  • As this procedure specifically stains the outer membrane, it was possible to demonstrate that, in E. coli K-12, changes in lipopolysaccharide distribution occurred during autolysis and lysozyme treatment [3].
  • We have determined the nucleotide (nt) sequence of the wild-type div+ gene of Bacillus subtilis which complements the temperature-sensitive div-341 mutation and is involved in cell septation, sporulation, secretion of extracellular enzymes, development of competence, autolysis and spore outgrowth [4].
  • Twenty-seven of the 29 defects observed occurred in the anterior tube (exencephaly); fourteen were identified in female fetuses, but the sex could not be determined in the other 15 cases because of fetal death and early autolysis [5].

High impact information on Autolysis

  • Electron-donating agents, such as phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, are effective in retarding autolysis [6].
  • Apoptotic cells do not release HMGB1 even after undergoing secondary necrosis and partial autolysis, and thus fail to promote inflammation even if not cleared promptly by phagocytic cells [7].
  • Deletion of vncS inhibits autolysis and also decreases killing by unrelated antibiotics [8].
  • This observation may have implications for the possible mechanisms of action of P-glycoprotein and for a possible physiologic role for P-glycoprotein in protection against complement-mediated autolysis [9].
  • METHODS: The amounts of DARPP-32, synapsin I, and the alpha subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II were measured by immunoblotting in postmortem samples from 14 schizophrenic subjects and their age-, gender-, and autolysis time-matched control subjects [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Autolysis

  • Both forms of C4 were functional as assayed by the ability of their alpha-chains to be cleaved by the protease C1, to bind methylamine, and to undergo denaturation-dependent autolysis [11].
  • To test this hypothesis, the autolysis loops of both thrombin and the anticoagulant serine protease-activated protein C were replaced with the corresponding loop of factor Xa [12].
  • Heparin-activated antithrombin interacts with the autolysis loop of target coagulation proteases [12].
  • 2. Inclusion of protease inhibitors during enzyme extraction did not affect the fraction of total enzyme activity which was water-soluble, nor did autolysis for 1 h at 25 degrees C. The physical properties of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase were determined after solubilization with Triton X-100 [13].
  • In addition, leupeptin administration for 9 days increased the activities of cathepsins C and D, as well as the rate of acid autolysis [14].

Biological context of Autolysis


Anatomical context of Autolysis


Gene context of Autolysis

  • To elucidate the muscular proteolytic system mediated by p94 and to solve the mystery of its unusually rapid autolysis, we searched for p94-binding proteins by the two-hybrid system [25].
  • Furthermore, cell surface proteolysis of the 55-kDa MT1-MMP species occurs in the absence of active MMP-2, suggesting MT1-MMP autolysis [26].
  • Together, these studies demonstrate that generation of the 44-kDa MT1-MMP autolysis product regulates collagenolytic activity and subsequent invasive potential, suggesting a novel feedback mechanism for the control of pericellular proteolysis [27].
  • Autolysis was maximal in the presence of 150 microg/ml hydroxyapatite where MMP-3 was only partially bound to crystals [28].
  • The rapid autolysis of the 27-Kd subunit to a 18-Kd intermediate when CANP is exposed to calcium may explain differences between our results and previous reports, which describe brain mCANP in other species as a 76-80-Kd monomer or a heterodimer containing 76-80-Kd and 17-20-Kd subunits [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Autolysis


  1. A Staphylococcus aureus autolysin that has an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase domain and an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase domain: cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization. Oshida, T., Sugai, M., Komatsuzawa, H., Hong, Y.M., Suginaka, H., Tomasz, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Penicillin tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, autolysis and the Psa ATP-binding cassette (ABC) manganese permease. Claverys, J.P., Granadel, C., Berry, A.M., Paton, J.C. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytochemical localization of lipopolysaccharides during peptidoglycan degradation of Escherichia coli cells. Frehel, C., Leduc, M. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequencing reveals similarity of the wild-type div+ gene of Bacillus subtilis to the Escherichia coli secA gene. Sadaie, Y., Takamatsu, H., Nakamura, K., Yamane, K. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of H-2 on neural tube defects in congenic mice. Tyan, M.L. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. The energized membrane and cellular autolysis in Bacillus subtilis. Jolliffe, L.K., Doyle, R.J., Streips, U.N. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Release of chromatin protein HMGB1 by necrotic cells triggers inflammation. Scaffidi, P., Misteli, T., Bianchi, M.E. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Programmed death in bacteria. Lewis, K. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The multidrug resistance phenotype confers immunological resistance. Weisburg, J.H., Curcio, M., Caron, P.C., Raghu, G., Mechetner, E.B., Roepe, P.D., Scheinberg, D.A. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence for decreased DARPP-32 in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Albert, K.A., Hemmings, H.C., Adamo, A.I., Potkin, S.G., Akbarian, S., Sandman, C.A., Cotman, C.W., Bunney, W.E., Greengard, P. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of the Mr difference between secreted murine fourth component of complement and the major plasma form: evidence for carboxyl-terminal cleavage of the alpha chain. Karp, D.R., Shreffler, D.C., Atkinson, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Heparin-activated antithrombin interacts with the autolysis loop of target coagulation proteases. Yang, L., Manithody, C., Rezaie, A.R. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Physical and functional properties of adenylate cyclase from mature rat testis. Neer, E.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of the protease inhibitor leupeptin on proteolytic activities and regeneration of mouse skeletal muscles after exercise injuries. Salminen, A. Am. J. Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Calpain 3 is activated through autolysis within the active site and lyses sarcomeric and sarcolemmal components. Taveau, M., Bourg, N., Sillon, G., Roudaut, C., Bartoli, M., Richard, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Directed glycosylation of human coagulation factor X at residue 333. Insight into factor Va-dependent prothrombin catalysis. Cook, B.C., Rudolph, A.E., Kurumbail, R.G., Porche-Sorbet, R., Miletich, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of two recombinant Drosophila calpains. CALPA and a novel homolog, CALPB. Jékely, G., Friedrich, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. The thrombin epitope recognizing thrombomodulin is a highly cooperative hot spot in exosite I. Pineda, A.O., Cantwell, A.M., Bush, L.A., Rose, T., Di Cera, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Interconnection of competence, stress and CiaR regulons in Streptococcus pneumoniae: competence triggers stationary phase autolysis of ciaR mutant cells. Dagkessamanskaia, A., Moscoso, M., Hénard, V., Guiral, S., Overweg, K., Reuter, M., Martin, B., Wells, J., Claverys, J.P. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Is calpain activity regulated by membranes and autolysis or by calcium and calpastatin? Goll, D.E., Thompson, V.F., Taylor, R.G., Zalewska, T. Bioessays (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency syndrome in CBA/J mice. Ultrastructural study. Eppig, J.J., Leiter, E.H. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Mapping and characterization of multiple chromosomal factors involved in methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Berger-Bächi, B., Strässle, A., Gustafson, J.E., Kayser, F.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Selective coupling of mu-calpain activation with the NMDA receptor is independent of translocation and autolysis in primary cortical neurons. Hewitt, K.E., Lesiuk, H.J., Tauskela, J.S., Morley, P., Durkin, J.P. J. Neurosci. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Phospholipid composition and amphiphile content of isolated sarcolemma from normal and autolytic rat myocardium. Suyatna, F.D., van Veldhoven, P.P., Borgers, M., Mannaerts, G.P. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Muscle-specific calpain, p94, responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, associates with connectin through IS2, a p94-specific sequence. Sorimachi, H., Kinbara, K., Kimura, S., Takahashi, M., Ishiura, S., Sasagawa, N., Sorimachi, N., Shimada, H., Tagawa, K., Maruyama, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Functional interplay between type I collagen and cell surface matrix metalloproteinase activity. Ellerbroek, S.M., Wu, Y.I., Overall, C.M., Stack, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Collagen binding properties of the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) hemopexin C domain. The ectodomain of the 44-kDa autocatalytic product of MT1-MMP inhibits cell invasion by disrupting native type I collagen cleavage. Tam, E.M., Wu, Y.I., Butler, G.S., Stack, M.S., Overall, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Hydroxyapatite induces autolytic degradation and inactivation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3. Kremer, E.A., Chen, Y., Suzuki, K., Nagase, H., Gorski, J.P. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Calcium-activated neutral proteinase of human brain: subunit structure and enzymatic properties of multiple molecular forms. Vitto, A., Nixon, R.A. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Binding of calpain fragments to calpastatin. Nishimura, T., Goll, D.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Lipids of Branhamella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Beebe, J.L., Wlodkowski, T.J. J. Bacteriol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. High-yield extraction and purification of glutathione reductase from baker's yeast. Tsai, Y.C., Yang, T.Y., Cheng, S.W., Li, S.N., Wang, Y.J. Prep. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Investigation of the short-time autolysis of rat hearts by means of SDS. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. Vándor, E., Varga, T. Z. Rechtsmed. (1979) [Pubmed]
  34. Partial purification and separation of H-2 antigens by free-flow preparative electrophoresis. Koubek, K., Kristofová, H., Rieger, M., Hilgert, I. Folia Biol. (Praha) (1980) [Pubmed]
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