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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Trace detection of hydroxyl radicals during the redox cycling of low concentrations of diaziquone: a new approach.

Quantifying oxygen radicals that arise during the redox cycling of quinone-containing anticancer agents such as diaziquone (AZQ) has been difficult, as has been their detection at low drug concentrations. This is due to the fact that EPR spin trapping, the method most often used for *OH detection, requires the use of high drug concentrations. Using a new highly sensitive technique that employs a fluorescamine-derivatized nitroxide, we show that low levels of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (4.25 microg/ml) catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals at very low, clinically relevant AZQ concentrations. Thus, at this enzyme concentration, we were able to detect a rate of 0.10 nM s(-1) hydroxyl radical production by 5 microM AZQ, a clinically relevant concentration. The Michaelis-Menten constants for AZQ-mediated hydroxyl radical production are: K(M) = 10.7 +/- 1.4 microM, and V(max) = 5.2 +/- 0.9 x 10(-8) M s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Experiments employing catalase, superoxide dismutase, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, confirm the previously deduced conclusions from high drug concentrations, that is, that at low concentrations, AZQ acts to shuttle reducing equivalents from the enzyme to oxygen, thus generating the redox cycle. The data presented here suggest that the levels and locations of redox active metal ions may be the principal controlling factor in the pathway of AZQ activity that involves oxidative stress.[1]


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