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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Peptide-induced Ca(2+) movements in a tonic insect muscle: effects of proctolin and periviscerokinin-2.

Although most of the characterized insect neuropeptides have been detected by their actions on muscle contractions, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying excitation-contraction coupling. Thus we initiated a pharmacological study on the myotropic action of the peptides periviscerokinin-2 (PVK-2) and proctolin on the hyperneural muscle of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Both peptides required extracellular Ca(2+) to induce muscle contraction, and a blockage of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) channels by Mn(2+) or La(3+) inhibited myotropic effects. The peptides were able to induce contractions in dependence on the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration in muscles depolarized with high K(+) saline. A reduction of extracellular Na(+), K(+), or Cl(-) did not effect peptide action. Nifedipine, an L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker, partially blocked the response to both peptides but to a much lesser extent than contractions evoked by elevated K(+). Using calcium imaging with fluo-3, we show that proctolin induces an increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. In calcium-free saline, no increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration could be detected. The inhibiting effect of ryanodine, thapsigargin, and TMB-8 on peptide-induced contractions suggests that Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a major role during peptide-induced contractions. Preliminary experiments suggest that the peptides do not employ cyclic nucleotides as second messengers, but may activate protein kinase C. Our results indicate that the peptides induce Ca(2+) influx by an activation or modulation of dihydropyridine-sensitive and voltage-independent sarcolemmal Ca(2+) channels. Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, but not inositol trisphosphate-induced Ca(2+) release, seems to account for most of the observed increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Additionally, both peptides were able to potentiate glutamate-induced contractions at threshold concentrations.[1]


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