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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effect of biogenic amine production by single bacterial cultures and metabiosis on cold-smoked salmon.

AIM: Biogenic amines are important indicators of spoilage in vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon. It is the aim of this study to identify bacteria responsible for biogenic amine production in cold-smoked salmon. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study identified spoilage microflora from cold-smoked salmon and determined biogenic amine production of single and co-cultures growing in cold-smoked salmon. Photobacterium phosphoreum was the only species that produced histamine when inoculated on sterile cold-smoked salmon. Production of putrescine was enhanced 10-15 times when cultures of Serratia liquefaciens or Hafnia alvei were grown with Carnobacterium divergens or Lactobacillus sakei subsp. carnosus. This phenomenon was explained by interspecies microbial metabolism of arginine, i.e., metabiosis. CONCLUSIONS: The amounts of biogenic amines produced by single and co-cultures corresponded to those observed during spoilage of naturally-contaminated cold-smoked salmon. Photobacterium phosphoreum and Lact. curvatus were identified as the specific spoilage organisms in cold-smoked salmon. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Determination of the specific spoilage organism is needed before a model can be developed for shelf-life predictions of cold-smoked salmon.[1]


  1. The effect of biogenic amine production by single bacterial cultures and metabiosis on cold-smoked salmon. Jørgensen, L.V., Huss, H.H., Dalgaard, P. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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