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Chemical Compound Review

putrescine     butane-1,4-diamine

Synonyms: Putrescin, Putreszin, putrescina, Lopac-P-7505, CHEMBL46257, ...
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Disease relevance of putrescine


Psychiatry related information on putrescine


High impact information on putrescine


Chemical compound and disease context of putrescine


Biological context of putrescine

  • Moreover, the rate of putrescine transport was dependent on cell density [20].
  • These observations suggest that inhibition of ODC and accompanying putrescine production are the underlying mechanisms by which NO and DFMO activate the MAPK pathway to promote induction of p21(waf1/cip1) and consequent inhibition of cell proliferation [21].
  • The electrophoretic mobility and Michaelis constants for the deamination of histimine and putrescine were identical for histaminases from human placenta and from medullary thyroid carcinoma [22].
  • These facts suggest that the induction of ODCase and the formation of putrescine by PTH are good markers of the differentiated phenotype of cultured chondrocytes [23].
  • Under conditions leading to cell death (e.g., 150 microM putrescine, pH 9.8), the correlation did not hold as a result of leakage of accumulated putrescine [24].

Anatomical context of putrescine


Associations of putrescine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of putrescine

  • The meu1Delta cells have a higher putrescine and a lower spermidine level than MEU1(+) cells, suggesting that the decreased spermidine level in the meu1Delta cultures is responsible for the greater apparent stability of ODC in the meu1Delta cells [33].
  • MTAP expression causes a significant decrease in intracellular polyamine levels and alters the ratio of putrescine to total polyamines [34].
  • It was found that TPO5 excretes putrescine effectively and spermidine less effectively [35].
  • NLP1 is one of the two missing links in the arginine decarboxylase pathway of putrescine biosynthesis in higher plants [36].
  • Yeast mutants deficient in polyamine biosynthesis required >10-fold higher concentrations of exogenous putrescine to restore cell proliferation upon deletion of the AGP2 gene [37].
  • The transcription of puuA was induced by putrescine and in a puuR-deleted strain [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of putrescine


  1. Labeled putrescine as a probe in brain tumors. Volkow, N., Goldman, S.S., Flamm, E.S., Cravioto, H., Wolf, A.P., Brodie, J.D. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Spermidine requirement for cell proliferation in eukaryotic cells: structural specificity and quantitation. Porter, C.W., Bergeron, R.J. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Modulation of N-nitrosodimethylamine kidney tumorigenesis by unilateral hydronephrosis and multiple putrescine administrations. Ohmori, T., Tabei, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of cyclosporin A and alpha-difluoromethylornithine on the growth of hamster pancreatic cancer in vitro. Saydjari, R., Townsend, C.M., Barranco, S.C., James, E., Thompson, J.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Physiological and biophysical factors that influence Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaque targeting of native and putrescine modified human amyloid beta40. Kandimalla, K.K., Curran, G.L., Holasek, S.S., Gilles, E.J., Wengenack, T.M., Ramirez-Alvarado, M., Poduslo, J.F. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Polyamine levels in brain and plasma after acute restraint or water-immersion restraint stress in mice. Hayashi, Y., Tanaka, J., Morizumi, Y., Kitamura, Y., Hattori, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Transglutaminase modification of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment disk membranes. McDowell, J.H., Ubel, A., Brown, R.A., Hargrave, P.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Alpha-difluoromethylornithine as a postcoitally effective antifertility agent in female rats. Reddy, P.R., Rukmini, V. Contraception. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of natural and synthetic polyamines on ethanol intake in UChB drinker rats. Bilbeny, N., Contreras, S., Font, M., Paeile, C., García, H. Alcohol (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Polyamines regulate calcium fluxes in a rapid plasma membrane response. Koenig, H., Goldstone, A., Lu, C.Y. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Dissection of experimental asthma with DNA microarray analysis identifies arginase in asthma pathogenesis. Zimmermann, N., King, N.E., Laporte, J., Yang, M., Mishra, A., Pope, S.M., Muntel, E.E., Witte, D.P., Pegg, A.A., Foster, P.S., Hamid, Q., Rothenberg, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of alpha-difluoromethylornithine on rectal mucosal levels of polyamines in a randomized, double-blinded trial for colon cancer prevention. Meyskens, F.L., Gerner, E.W., Emerson, S., Pelot, D., Durbin, T., Doyle, K., Lagerberg, W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of transglutaminase in the rat subtotal nephrectomy model of renal fibrosis. Johnson, T.S., Griffin, M., Thomas, G.L., Skill, J., Cox, A., Yang, B., Nicholas, B., Birckbichler, P.J., Muchaneta-Kubara, C., Meguid El Nahas, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of ethanol on polyamine synthesis during liver regeneration in rats. Diehl, A.M., Wells, M., Brown, N.D., Thorgeirsson, S.S., Steer, C.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Amine content of vaginal fluid from untreated and treated patients with nonspecific vaginitis. Chen, K.C., Forsyth, P.S., Buchanan, T.M., Holmes, K.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of rho through a cross-link with polyamines catalyzed by Bordetella dermonecrotizing toxin. Masuda, M., Betancourt, L., Matsuzawa, T., Kashimoto, T., Takao, T., Shimonishi, Y., Horiguchi, Y. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in serum putrescine and spermidine levels following local radiation to hepatoma 3924A of the rat. Russell, D.H., Looney, W.B., Kovacs, C.J., Hopkins, H.A., Dattilo, J.W., Morris, H.P. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis on the growth and melanogenesis of murine melanoma cells. Käpyaho, K., Sinervirta, R., Jänne, J. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of putrescine on D-galactosamine-induced acute liver failure in rats. Nishiguchi, S., Kuroki, T., Takeda, T., Nakajima, S., Shiomi, S., Seki, S., Matsui-Yuasa, I., Otani, S., Kobayashi, K. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Putrescine transport is greatly increased in human fibroblasts initiated to proliferate. Pohjanpelto, P. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of p42/p44 mitogen-activated-protein kinase and p21waf1/cip1 in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by nitric oxide. Bauer, P.M., Buga, G.M., Ignarro, L.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Histaminase (diamine oxidase) activity in human tumors: an expression of a mature genome. Baylin, S.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Polyamine and differentiation: induction of ornithine decarboxylase by parathyroid hormone is a good marker of differentiated chondrocytes. Takigawa, M., Ishida, H., Takano, T., Suzuki, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Uptake and accumulation of putrescine and its lethality in Anacystis nidulans. Guarino, L.A., Cohen, S.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial DNA synthesis and adaptive hyperplasia after jejunectomy in the rat by suppression of polyamine biosynthesis. Luk, G.D., Baylin, S.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Putrescine-promoted mutual adhesiveness of HeLa cells from density-inhibited suspension cultures. Deman, J., Bruyneel, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Major pathway for putrescine synthesis induced by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in chick duodenum. Shinki, T., Tanaka, H., Kadofuku, T., Sato, T., Suda, T. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Polyamine metabolism: a potential therapeutic target in trypanosomes. Bacchi, C.J., Nathan, H.C., Hutner, S.H., McCann, P.P., Sjoerdsma, A. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular genetics of polyamine synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Heby, O., Persson, L. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Putrescine is involved in the vitamin D action in chick intestine. Shinki, T., Tanaka, H., Takito, J., Yamaguchi, A., Nakamura, Y., Yoshiki, S., Suda, T. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Arginine decarboxylase inhibitors reduce the capacity of Trypanosoma cruzi to infect and multiply in mammalian host cells. Kierszenbaum, F., Wirth, J.J., McCann, P.P., Sjoerdsma, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Activation of polyamine catabolism in transgenic rats induces acute pancreatitis. Alhonen, L., Parkkinen, J.J., Keinanen, T., Sinervirta, R., Herzig, K.H., Jänne, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Studies on the regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in yeast: effect of deletion in the MEU1 gene. Chattopadhyay, M.K., Tabor, C.W., Tabor, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, a gene frequently codeleted with p16(cdkN2a/ARF), acts as a tumor suppressor in a breast cancer cell line. Christopher, S.A., Diegelman, P., Porter, C.W., Kruger, W.D. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Excretion of putrescine and spermidine by the protein encoded by YKL174c (TPO5) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tachihara, K., Uemura, T., Kashiwagi, K., Igarashi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Plant C-N hydrolases and the identification of a plant N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase involved in polyamine biosynthesis. Piotrowski, M., Janowitz, T., Kneifel, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. AGP2 encodes the major permease for high affinity polyamine import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aouida, M., Leduc, A., Poulin, R., Ramotar, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. gamma-Glutamylputrescine synthetase in the putrescine utilization pathway of Escherichia coli K-12. Kurihara, S., Oda, S., Tsuboi, Y., Kim, H.G., Oshida, M., Kumagai, H., Suzuki, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  39. Urinary polyamine excretion during growth and regression of 1,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinoma. Anehus, S., Albinsson, A., Andersson, G., Heby, O. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  40. Targeting alzheimer amyloid plaques in vivo. Wengenack, T.M., Curran, G.L., Poduslo, J.F. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Effects of DL-alpha-methylornithine on proliferation and polyamine content of 9L rat brain tumor cells. Seidenfeld, J., Marton, L.J. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  42. The beneficial effects of ciprofloxacin on survival and hepatic regenerative activity in a rat model of fulminant hepatic failure. Kaita, K.D., Assy, N., Gauthier, T., Zhang, M., Meyers, A.F., Minuk, G.Y. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  43. Liver regeneration and the effect of exogenous putrescine on regenerative activity after partial hepatectomy in cirrhotic rats. MacIntosh, E., Gauthier, T., Pettigrew, N., Minuk, G. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
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