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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Selective induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are multifunctional proteins that have the capacity to modify cellular activities and to modulate matrix turnover. We demonstrate that TIMP-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression are selectively and markedly increased in a murine model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Northern analysis showed that lung steady-state TIMP-1 mRNA levels increased 14-fold after bleomycin administration compared with control mice. Expression of the genes for TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-13) was unaltered in the injured lung. In situ hybridization demonstrated that TIMP-1 gene induction was spatially restricted to areas of lung injury. Metalloproteinase inhibitory activity of relative molecular mass of ~ 21 to 28 kD, corresponding to the molecular weights for TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, was identified in lung extracts of bleomycin-injured mice by reverse zymography. Western analysis demonstrated that TIMP-1 protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of bleomycin-treated mice increased 220- and 151-fold at Days 4 and 28, respectively, compared with control mice. TIMP-2 immunoreactive protein in the BALF increased 20- and 103-fold relative to controls at Days 4 and 28, respectively. These results demonstrate that TIMP-1 gene expression is selectively increased, and that the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 is differentially regulated in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The profound and durable increase in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 proteins suggests an important regulatory role for these antiproteases in the inflammatory and fibrotic responses to bleomycin-induced lung injury.[1]


  1. Selective induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Madtes, D.K., Elston, A.L., Kaback, L.A., Clark, J.G. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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