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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sequence-based design of single-copy genomic DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Chromosomal rearrangements are frequently monitored by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using large, recombinant DNA probes consisting of contiguous genomic intervals that are often distant from disease loci. We developed smaller, targeted, single-copy probes directly from the human genome sequence. These single-copy FISH (scFISH) probes were designed by computational sequence analysis of approximately 100-kb genomic sequences. ScFISH probes are produced by long PCR, then purified, labeled, and hybridized individually or in combination to human chromosomes. Preannealing or blocking with unlabeled, repetitive DNA is unnecessary, as scFISH probes lack repetitive DNA sequences. The hybridization results are analogous to conventional FISH, except that shorter probes can be readily visualized. Combinations of probes from the same region gave single hybridization signals on metaphase chromosomes. ScFISH probes are produced directly from genomic DNA, and thus more quickly than by recombinant DNA techniques. We developed single-copy probes for three chromosomal regions-the CDC2L1 (chromosome 1p36), MAGEL2 (chromosome 15q11.2), and HIRA (chromosome 22q11.2) genes-and show their utility for FISH. The smallest probe tested was 2290 bp in length. To assess the potential utility of scFISH for high-resolution analysis, we determined chromosomal distributions of such probes. Single-copy intervals of this length or greater are separated by an average of 29.2 and 22.3 kb on chromosomes 21 and 22, respectively. This indicates that abnormalities seen on metaphase chromosomes could be characterized with scFISH probes at a resolution greater than previously possible.[1]


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