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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evaluation of media and derivatization chemistry for six aldehydes in a passive sampler.

We evaluated the GMD passive sampler for its suitability to measure six aldehydes over a 7-d period in population exposure studies. The six target aldehydes were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. The GMD sampler contains a silica gel-impregnated cellulose pad coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) hydrochloride. This agent reacts with formaldehyde to form a hydrazone that is quantified with a high-performance liquid chromatograph. The GMD sampler was tested for background contamination and aldehyde recoveries after 0, 1, and 7 d of storage. Results indicated that the GMD monitor, as currently manufactured, is suitable for shorter-term sampling (up to 24 h) of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. It is however not acceptable for sampling of acetaldehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal over a 7-d exposure period due to the chemical reactions on the silica gel-impregnated cellulose pad. Glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-DNPH derivatives formed on the cellulose and Teflon-coated glass fiber pads that had been prepared with glycerol under acidic and oxidative conditions. Acrolein- and crotonaldehyde-DNPH derivatives diminish through the reverse reaction of the DNPH derivatives to form free aldehydes under acidic conditions. We showed that the unknown reaction products of acrolein and crotonaldehyde derivatives were not pyrazolines but probably resulted from E/Zisomerization. These conversion reactions are favored in acidic conditions present in either the derivatization solution or the collection medium. The most consistent recovery was obtained on glass fiber pads. In particular, recoveries of crotonaldehyde- and acrolein-DNPH derivatives were increased through the use of a pH 4 buffered derivatization solution. These chemical instability problems were overcome by using a pH 4 buffer (citric acid/sodium citrate) and an alternative hygroscopic agent (1,3-butanediol) in the DNPH derivatization solution. Results with DNPH derivatives from these spiking experiments were further confirmed with gas-phase spiking experiments. We determined the optimal acidity, buffer solution, and concentrations of the buffer solution and 1,3-butanediol for the DNPH derivatization solution. This new formulation of the DNPH derivatization solution can be used for collection of the six target aldehydes over a 7-d sampling period.[1]


  1. Evaluation of media and derivatization chemistry for six aldehydes in a passive sampler. Liu, L.J., Dills, R.L., Paulsen, M., Kalman, D.A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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