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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The use of oxalate to reduce dentin permeability under adhesive restorations.

PURPOSE: To test a novel approach to reducing dentin permeability that localizes occlusion of dentin tubules by calcium oxalate crystals to the subsurface without lowering resin bond strengths to oxalate-treated dentin surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flat dentin surfaces of extracted human third molars were etched with a mass fraction of 32% phosphoric acid (Bisco) for 15 s and rinsed. Half of the surface was treated with a potassium oxalate gel (mass fraction of 3% monopotassium monohydrogen oxalate) for 2 mins. The entire surface was then moist bonded with either One Step (OS) or Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SB) adhesive systems. A resin-based composite (Z-100) buildup was made over the entire surface. After storage for 24 hrs in distilled water, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned to separate the oxalate-treated half from the untreated (control) half. Each half was serially sectioned into several 0.7 mm thick slabs which were then trimmed to an hour-glass shape to reduce the bonded area to approximately 0.8 mm2 and tested in tension. Pre- and post-treatment hydraulic conductance (Lp) of dentin was determined using dentin discs with a standard protocol. SEM images were obtained to examine the effects of treatment both on the dentin surface and along the tubules beneath the surface. The bonded interface was also examined by SEM. RESULTS: Treating etched dentin discs with the oxalate gel caused significant reduction of the Lp of dentin (80% reduction, P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between bond strengths of oxalate-treated and untreated surfaces for either adhesive system. OS resulted in a bond strength of 25.8 +/- 9.2 MPa to untreated and 27.8 +/- 8.9 MPa to oxalate treated surfaces (P > 0.05). SB showed bond strengths of 22.9 +/- 7.9 MPa and 22.9 +/- 9.6 MPa to untreated and treated surfaces, respectively (P > 0.05). SEM images showed that the application of potassium oxalate gel on etched dentin resulted in the formation of crystals inside the tubules rather than on the surface. Examination of the bonded interfaces demonstrated that the crystal formation inside the tubules did not compromise the formation of a typical hybrid layer on the top of dentin surfaces. Resin monomers penetrated into the tubules filling the spaces around the crystals forming resin tags with a jagged-like feature.[1]


  1. The use of oxalate to reduce dentin permeability under adhesive restorations. Pashley, D.H., Carvalho, R.M., Pereira, J.C., Villanueva, R., Tay, F.R. American journal of dentistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
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