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Gene Review

PTPN5  -  protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Neural-specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase, PTPSTEP, STEP, Striatum-enriched protein-tyrosine phosphatase, Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 5
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Disease relevance of PTPN5

  • One hundred eleven outpatients with moderate hypercholesterolemia were treated at five lipid clinics with the National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 diet (which is low in fat and cholesterol) and lovastatin (20 mg once daily), both alone and together [1].
  • This article provides a sequence of steps that can be used by the practicing physician for detecting occupational diseases: Step 1: Routine screening questions for all patients (List of job titles? Exposure to fumes, dusts, chemicals, loud noise, or radiation? Temporal relationship of the chief complaint to activities at work or at home?) [2].
  • In one mechanism, shown by Equation 1, pNSP is reduced to p-aminophenol (pAP) via two enzymatic steps (Steps 1 and 3), which are mediated by the nonenzymatic dehydration of p-N-hydroxyaminophenol (pN-OHAP) to 1,4-benzoquinoneimine (BQI) (Step 2) [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hyperlipidemic subjects who were consuming an NCEP Step I diet, with or without the incorporation of quick-service meals, experienced a significant decrease in their total serum cholesterol and LDL-C levels, body weight, and reported fat intake [4].
  • Subjects followed a euenergetic AHA Step 1 diet for 2 mo, followed by a weight-loss diet (deficit of 1.0-1.5 MJ/d) for 6 mo [5].

Psychiatry related information on PTPN5

  • Controlled outcome evaluation of the First Step Program: a daily physical activity intervention for individuals with type II diabetes [6].
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of an exercise prescription instrument (i.e., Step Test Exercise Prescription [STEP]), compared to usual-care exercise counseling delivered by primary care doctors on fitness and exercise self-efficacy among elderly community-dwelling patients [7].
  • Four hierarchical regression analyses were computed to determine factors related to physical and mental health in each patient group, with the following variables in the equation: age, income, disease activity (Step 1), hassles (Step 2), emotional and task coping, and social support (Step 3) [8].
  • All subjects were instructed in the American Heart Association Step I (AHA-I) diet, and eating behavior was monitored using 4-day food records during each study period [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that self-assessment examinations provide an accurate basis for predicting performance on the associated Step with some variation in predictive accuracy across test administration conditions [10].

High impact information on PTPN5

  • CONCLUSIONS: The NCEP Step 2 diet failed to lower LDL cholesterol levels in men or women with high-risk lipoprotein levels who did not engage in aerobic exercise [11].
  • In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we studied coronary endothelial responses in 23 patients randomly assigned to either lovastatin (40 mg twice daily; 11 patients) or placebo (12 patients) plus a lipid-lowering diet (American Heart Association Step 1 diet) [12].
  • After one year, the subjects in both intervention groups had reached or closely approached NCEP Step 1 dietary goals and reduced their mean body fat significantly (range of reduction in mean fat weight, 4.0 to 7.8 kg) [13].
  • INTERVENTIONS--Cholesterol-lowering diet (National Institutes of Health National Cholesterol Education Program Step I Diet) and either 5 mg, 20 mg, or 80 mg of atorvastatin, or placebo [14].
  • One of the NCEP Step 2 diets was enriched in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, high-fish: 0.54% or 1.23 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] [121-188 g fish/d]) and the other low in fish-derived (n-3) PUFA (low-fat, low-fish [0.13% or 0.27 g/d EPA and DHA] [33 g fish/d]) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of PTPN5

  • PATIENTS: 121 patients who had moderate primary hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol level > 6 mmol/L and < 8 mmol/L; triglyceride level < 3 mmol/L) after following a low-fat diet for 1 year (National Cholesterol Education Program Step Two diet) [16].
  • After at least 12 weeks of an American Heart Association Step 1 diet and 2 weeks placebo run-in, 6,605 men and women, ages 45 to 73 and 55 to 73 years, respectively, without clinical evidence of coronary heart disease, are randomized in equal numbers to either lovastatin (20 mg/day) or placebo [17].
  • 3. Step-wise regression analysis indicated that independent effects on the fasting plasma noradrenaline concentration were exerted by age (r = +0.32, P = 0.002), glucose concentration (r = -0.32, P = 0.02) and the degree of obesity (r = -0.37, P = 0.007), but not by plasma insulin concentration [18].
  • The proportion of children receiving therapy with HIV RNA < or = 400 copies/ml at Study Weeks 24 and 48 receiving d4T/NVP/RTV in Step 2 were compared with children receiving RTV-containing regimens in Step 1 [19].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Step-down lansoprazole therapy is considered very effective in terms of rapid effect, long-term effect and high quality GERD treatment [20].

Biological context of PTPN5

  • PTPN5 crystallized, in two distinct crystal forms, with a sulphate ion in close proximity to the active site and the WPD (Trp-Pro-Asp) loop in a unique conformation, not seen in other PTPs, ending in a 3(10)-helix [21].
  • Thermodynamic Analysis Reveals Structural Rearrangement during the Acylation Step in Human Trypsin 4 on 4-Methylumbelliferyl 4-Guanidinobenzoate Substrate Analogue [22].
  • In this mechanism, formation of the p-hydroxybenzylnitrenium ion (pNH+P) occurs at the active-site zinc ion of the enzyme (Step 2) and accelerates further nonenzymatic reduction to pAP or hydrolysis to BQ (Step 3) [3].
  • GATA Factor Translation Is the Final Downstream Step in the Amino Acid/Target-of-Rapamycin-mediated Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Anautogenous Mosquito Aedes aegypti [23].
  • The study hypothesis was that the Step I Diet (8% to 10% of energy intake from saturated fatty acids) containing beef would have the same effect on plasma lipid levels of hypercholesterolemic men as a like diet containing chicken [24].

Anatomical context of PTPN5

  • In addition, 1aCB had a reduced ratio of ras in the detergent to aqueous phases after triton X114 partitioning, suggesting a defect in Step I processing of the p21ras in the cell line [25].
  • By stage 6, shortly after cells leave the primitive streak, a field of cells is generate which is specified to give rise to IM (Step 1) [26].
  • Hepatitis C Virus Entry Requires a Critical Postinternalization Step and Delivery to Early Endosomes via Clathrin-Coated Vesicles [27].
  • Patients with cholesterol exceeding 6.2 mmol/L (240 mg/dl) are candidates for intensive treatment with a Step 2 diet and sometimes drugs, as are those in the 5.2 to 6.2 mmol/L (200 to 240 mg/dl) range who are at especially high risk because they already have coronary artery disease and/or 2 other risk factors [28].
  • Responses of pigeon horizontal semicircular canal afferent fibers. I. Step, trapezoid, and low-frequency sinusoid mechanical and rotational stimulation [29].

Associations of PTPN5 with chemical compounds

  • Protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPN5, PTPRR and PTPN7 comprise a family of phosphatases that specifically inactivate MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) [21].
  • The two metabolic diets contained foods high in either soluble or insoluble fiber and were separated by a two-month National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 diet [30].
  • INTERVENTION--Patients received a Step II Diet and lovastatin (40 mg daily) plus colestipol (30 g daily), niacin (4 g daily) plus colestipol, or placebo (plus colestipol if LDL-C > 90th percentile) for 2.5 years [31].
  • Initially (Step 1) there was proteolytic cleavage of the protein core and partial endoglycosidic cleavage of the heparan sulfate chains (t1/2 approximately 6 h), with generation of larger glycosaminoglycan-peptide intermediates with chains of Mr approximately 10,000, about one-third their original size [32].
  • However, the initial degradation of the proteoglycan might have occurred in a prelysosomal compartment since Step 1 was not totally blocked by chloroquine [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTPN5

  • The subjects were randomly assigned to aerobic exercise, the NCEP Step 2 diet, or diet plus exercise, or to a control group, which received no intervention [11].
  • 4. Step gradient ultracentrifugation suggested that the latter two are apolipoproteins [33].
  • Assuming that Step 1 was successfully completed, we here propose a data-driven method to deal with Step 2 and extract functional interactions from fMRI datasets through partial correlations [34].
  • RESULTS: Of the 13,777 participants who reported having high cholesterol levels requiring drug therapy, only 20% reported total fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol consumption consistent with Step II dietary goals [35].
  • To determine whether soy protein could enhance the hypocholesterolemic effect of the NCEP Step I diet, 13 normocholesterolemic and 13 hypercholesterolemic men aged 20-50 y were enrolled in a randomized, 2-part, crossover study [36].


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  2. The occupational and environmental health history. Goldman, R.H., Peters, J.M. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Mechanism of p-nitrosophenol reduction catalyzed by horse liver and human pi-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Human pi-ADH as a quinone reductase. Maskos, Z., Winston, G.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Efficacy of the National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet. A randomized trial incorporating quick-service foods. Davidson, M.H., Kong, J.C., Drennan, K.B., Story, K., Anderson, G.H. Arch. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of an American Heart Association diet and weight loss on lipoprotein lipids in obese, postmenopausal women. Nicklas, B.J., Katzel, L.I., Bunyard, L.B., Dennis, K.E., Goldberg, A.P. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Controlled outcome evaluation of the First Step Program: a daily physical activity intervention for individuals with type II diabetes. Tudor-Locke, C., Bell, R.C., Myers, A.M., Harris, S.B., Ecclestone, N.A., Lauzon, N., Rodger, N.W. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Can primary care doctors prescribe exercise to improve fitness? The Step Test Exercise Prescription (STEP) project. Petrella, R.J., Koval, J.J., Cunningham, D.A., Paterson, D.H. American journal of preventive medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Determinants of health status in fibromyalgia: a comparative study with systemic lupus erythematosus. Da Costa, D., Dobkin, P.L., Fitzcharles, M.A., Fortin, P.R., Beaulieu, A., Zummer, M., Senécal, J.L., Goulet, J.R., Rich, E., Choquette, D., Clarke, A.E. J. Rheumatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of oat bran in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Keenan, J.M., Wenz, J.B., Myers, S., Ripsin, C., Huang, Z.Q. The Journal of family practice. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Using the NBME self-assessments to project performance on USMLE Step 1 and Step 2: impact of test administration conditions. Sawhill, A., Butler, A., Ripkey, D., Swanson, D.B., Subhiyah, R., Thelman, J., Walsh, W., Holtzman, K.Z., Angelucci, K. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. Stefanick, M.L., Mackey, S., Sheehan, M., Ellsworth, N., Haskell, W.L., Wood, P.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Beneficial effects of cholesterol-lowering therapy on the coronary endothelium in patients with coronary artery disease. Treasure, C.B., Klein, J.L., Weintraub, W.S., Talley, J.D., Stillabower, M.E., Kosinski, A.S., Zhang, J., Boccuzzi, S.J., Cedarholm, J.C., Alexander, R.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The effects on plasma lipoproteins of a prudent weight-reducing diet, with or without exercise, in overweight men and women. Wood, P.D., Stefanick, M.L., Williams, P.T., Haskell, W.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy and safety of a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Bakker-Arkema, R.G., Davidson, M.H., Goldstein, R.J., Davignon, J., Isaacsohn, J.L., Weiss, S.R., Keilson, L.M., Brown, W.V., Miller, V.T., Shurzinske, L.J., Black, D.M. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived N-3 fatty acid enrichment. Meydani, S.N., Lichtenstein, A.H., Cornwall, S., Meydani, M., Goldin, B.R., Rasmussen, H., Dinarello, C.A., Schaefer, E.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Combination therapy with colestipol and psyllium mucilloid in patients with hyperlipidemia. Spence, J.D., Huff, M.W., Heidenheim, P., Viswanatha, A., Munoz, C., Lindsay, R., Wolfe, B., Mills, D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Design & rationale of the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS). Downs, J.R., Beere, P.A., Whitney, E., Clearfield, M., Weis, S., Rochen, J., Stein, E.A., Shapiro, D.R., Langendorfer, A., Gotto, A.M. Am. J. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Reduced plasma noradrenaline concentrations in simple-obese and diabetic obese patients. Astrup, A.V., Christensen, N.J., Breum, L. Clin. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Stavudine, nevirapine and ritonavir in stable antiretroviral therapy-experienced children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Yogev, R., Lee, S., Wiznia, A., Nachman, S., Stanley, K., Pelton, S., Mofenson, L., Fiscus, S., Jimenez, E., Rathore, M.H., Smith, M.E., Song, L.Y., McIntosh, K. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Management of symptoms in step-down therapy of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mine, S., Iida, T., Tabata, T., Kishikawa, H., Tanaka, Y. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Crystal structures and inhibitor identification for PTPN5, PTPRR and PTPN7: a family of human MAPK-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases. Eswaran, J., von Kries, J.P., Marsden, B., Longman, E., Debreczeni, J.E., Ugochukwu, E., Turnbull, A., Lee, W.H., Knapp, S., Barr, A.J. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Thermodynamic Analysis Reveals Structural Rearrangement during the Acylation Step in Human Trypsin 4 on 4-Methylumbelliferyl 4-Guanidinobenzoate Substrate Analogue. Tóth, J., Gombos, L., Simon, Z., Medveczky, P., Szilágyi, L., Gráf, L., Málnási-Csizmadia, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. GATA Factor Translation Is the Final Downstream Step in the Amino Acid/Target-of-Rapamycin-mediated Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Anautogenous Mosquito Aedes aegypti. Park, J.H., Attardo, G.M., Hansen, I.A., Raikhel, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of beef and chicken consumption on plasma lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic men. Scott, L.W., Dunn, J.K., Pownall, H.J., Brauchi, D.J., McMann, M.C., Herd, J.A., Harris, K.B., Savell, J.W., Cross, H.R., Gotto, A.M. Arch. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Reversion of a human tumour cell line containing oncogenic p21ras is associated with a defect in the post-translational processing of the ras protein. Tilbrook, P.A., Paterson, H.F., Marshall, C.J. Oncogene (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Patterning of the avian intermediate mesoderm by lateral plate and axial tissues. James, R.G., Schultheiss, T.M. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Hepatitis C Virus Entry Requires a Critical Postinternalization Step and Delivery to Early Endosomes via Clathrin-Coated Vesicles. Meertens, L., Bertaux, C., Dragic, T. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. The US National Cholesterol Education Program. Adult treatment guidelines. Hulley, S.B. Drugs (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Responses of pigeon horizontal semicircular canal afferent fibers. I. Step, trapezoid, and low-frequency sinusoid mechanical and rotational stimulation. Dickman, J.D., Correia, M.J. J. Neurophysiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect on blood lipids of very high intakes of fiber in diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol. Jenkins, D.J., Wolever, T.M., Rao, A.V., Hegele, R.A., Mitchell, S.J., Ransom, T.P., Boctor, D.L., Spadafora, P.J., Jenkins, A.L., Mehling, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of lowering elevated LDL cholesterol on the cardiovascular risk of lipoprotein(a). Maher, V.M., Brown, B.G., Marcovina, S.M., Hillger, L.A., Zhao, X.Q., Albers, J.J. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Turnover of heparan sulfate proteoglycan in human colon carcinoma cells. A quantitative biochemical and autoradiographic study. Iozzo, R.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. Lesion-induced synthesis and secretion of proteins by nonneuronal cells resident in frog peripheral nerve. Rotshenker, S., Reichert, F., Shooter, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Partial correlation for functional brain interactivity investigation in functional MRI. Marrelec, G., Krainik, A., Duffau, H., Pélégrini-Issac, M., Lehéricy, S., Doyon, J., Benali, H. Neuroimage (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Compliance with National Cholesterol Education Program dietary and lifestyle guidelines among older women with self-reported hypercholesterolemia. The Women's Health Initiative. Hsia, J., Rodabough, R., Rosal, M.C., Cochrane, B., Howard, B.V., Snetselaar, L., Frishman, W.H., Stefanick, M.L. Am. J. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Cholesterol-lowering effect of soy protein in normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic men. Wong, W.W., Smith, E.O., Stuff, J.E., Hachey, D.L., Heird, W.C., Pownell, H.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
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