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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The ethylene hormone response in Arabidopsis: a eukaryotic two-component signaling system.

The simple gas ethylene affects numerous physiological processes in the growth and development of higher plants. With the use of molecular genetic approaches, we are beginning to learn how plants perceive ethylene and how this signal is transduced. Components of ethylene signal transduction are defined by ethylene response mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. The genes corresponding to two of these mutants, etr1 and etr1, have been cloned. The ETR1 gene encodes a homolog of two-component regulators that are known almost exclusively in prokaryotes. The two-component regulators in prokaryotes are involved in the perception and transduction of a wide range of environmental signals leading to adaptive responses. The CTR1 gene encodes a homolog of the Raf family of serine/threonine protein kinases. Raf is part of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade known to regulate cell growth and development in mammals, worms, and flies. The ethylene response pathway may, therefore, exemplify a conserved protein kinase cascade regulated by a two-component system. The dominance of all known mutant alleles of ETR1 may be due to either constitutive activation of the ETR1 protein or dominant interference of wild-type activity. The discovery of Arabidopsis genes encoding proteins related to ETR1 suggests that the failure to recover recessive etr1 mutant alleles may be due to the presence of redundant genes.[1]


  1. The ethylene hormone response in Arabidopsis: a eukaryotic two-component signaling system. Chang, C., Meyerowitz, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
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