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Gene Review

CTR1  -  serine/threonine-protein kinase CTR1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on CTR1


Biological context of CTR1


Anatomical context of CTR1


Associations of CTR1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CTR1

  • These results suggest that CTR1 interacts with ETR1 in vivo, and that this association is required to turn off the ethylene-signaling pathway [3].

Other interactions of CTR1

  • A major gap is represented by the mysterious plant protein EIN2 that genetically works downstream of CTR1 and upstream of the key transcription factor EIN3 [10].
  • The EDR1 gene was isolated by positional cloning and was found to encode a putative MAP kinase kinase kinase similar to CTR1, a negative regulator of ethylene responses in Arabidopsis [11].
  • Double mutant analysis indicates that ETR2 acts upstream of CTR1, which codes for a Raf-related protein kinase [12].
  • Instead, we found that Arabidopsis PP2A-1C, a PP2A catalytic subunit previously characterized as interacting with RCN1, associates strongly with the kinase domain of CTR1 in vitro [13].
  • The protein EIN2 acts downstream of CTR1 and the possible kinase cascade [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CTR1


  1. CTR1, a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis, encodes a member of the raf family of protein kinases. Kieber, J.J., Rothenberg, M., Roman, G., Feldmann, K.A., Ecker, J.R. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The Exoribonuclease XRN4 Is a Component of the Ethylene Response Pathway in Arabidopsis. Potuschak, T., Vansiri, A., Binder, B.M., Lechner, E., Vierstra, R.D., Genschik, P. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Biochemical and functional analysis of CTR1, a protein kinase that negatively regulates ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Huang, Y., Li, H., Hutchison, C.E., Laskey, J., Kieber, J.J. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. LeCTR1, a tomato CTR1-like gene, demonstrates ethylene signaling ability in Arabidopsis and novel expression patterns in tomato. Leclercq, J., Adams-Phillips, L.C., Zegzouti, H., Jones, B., Latché, A., Giovannoni, J.J., Pech, J.C., Bouzayen, M. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of plant disease resistance, stress responses, cell death, and ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis by the EDR1 protein kinase. Tang, D., Christiansen, K.M., Innes, R.W. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Dissecting the ethylene pathway of Arabidopsis. Etheridge, N., Chen, Y.F., Schaller, G.E. Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The ethylene hormone response in Arabidopsis: a eukaryotic two-component signaling system. Chang, C., Meyerowitz, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Nm23-H1 metastasis suppressor phosphorylation of kinase suppressor of Ras via a histidine protein kinase pathway. Hartsough, M.T., Morrison, D.K., Salerno, M., Palmieri, D., Ouatas, T., Mair, M., Patrick, J., Steeg, P.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Three genes that affect sugar sensing (abscisic acid insensitive 4, abscisic acid insensitive 5, and constitutive triple response 1) are differentially regulated by glucose in Arabidopsis. Arroyo, A., Bossi, F., Finkelstein, R.R., León, P. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular mechanisms of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Benavente, L.M., Alonso, J.M. Molecular bioSystems. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Negative regulation of defense responses in plants by a conserved MAPKK kinase. Frye, C.A., Tang, D., Innes, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. ETR2 is an ETR1-like gene involved in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Sakai, H., Hua, J., Chen, Q.G., Chang, C., Medrano, L.J., Bleecker, A.B., Meyerowitz, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Enhanced ethylene responsiveness in the Arabidopsis eer1 mutant results from a loss-of-function mutation in the protein phosphatase 2A A regulatory subunit, RCN1. Larsen, P.B., Cancel, J.D. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Ethylene signaling pathway. Stepanova, A.N., Alonso, J.M. Sci. STKE (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Evidence that CTR1-mediated ethylene signal transduction in tomato is encoded by a multigene family whose members display distinct regulatory features. Adams-Phillips, L., Barry, C., Kannan, P., Leclercq, J., Bouzayen, M., Giovannoni, J. Plant Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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