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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Management of facial hyperpigmentation.

Facial and neck pigmentations are the most cosmetically important. They are common in middle-aged women, and are related to endogenous (hormones) and exogenous factors (such as use of cosmetics and perfumes, and exposure to sun radiation). Melasma (chloasma) is the most common cause of facial pigmentation, but there are many other forms such as Riehl's melanosis, poikiloderma of Civatte, erythrose peribuccale pigmentaire of Brocq, erythromelanosis follicularis of the face and neck, linea fusca, and cosmetic hyperpigmentations. Treatment of melasma and other facial pigmentations has always been challenging and discouraging. It is important to avoid exposure to the sun or to ultraviolet lamps, and to use broad-spectrum sunscreens. Several hypopigmenting agents have been used with differing results. Topical hydroquinone 2 to 4% alone or in combination with tretinoin 0.05 to 0.1% is an established treatment. Topical azelaic acid 15 to 20% can be as efficacious as hydroquinone, but is less of an irritant. Tretinoin is especially useful in treating hyperpigmentation of photoaged skin. Kojic acid, alone or in combination with glycolic acid or hydroquinone, has shown good results, due to its inhibitory action on tyrosinase. Chemical peels are useful to treat melasma: trichloroacetic acid, Jessner's solution, Unna's paste, alpha-hydroxy acid preparations, kojic acid, and salicyclic acid, alone or in various combinations have shown good results. In contrast, laser therapies have not produced completely satisfactory results, because they can induce hyperpigmentation and recurrences can occur. New laser approaches could be successful at clearing facial hyperpigmentation in the future.[1]


  1. Management of facial hyperpigmentation. Pérez-Bernal, A., Muñoz-Pérez, M.A., Camacho, F. American journal of clinical dermatology. (2000) [Pubmed]
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