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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Melanosis

  • While MT-ret transgenic animals develop severe melanosis of the skin and subcutis and subsequent melanomas at an incidence of 80% during their first year of life, MT-ret mice devoid of IL-6 developed preneoplastic melanosis and consecutive melanomas significantly less frequently (47%; P < 0.05) [1].
  • Furthermore, melanosis observed in patients with pituitary carcinoma is associated with ACTH levels similar to those occurrring in the ectopic ACTH or Nelson's syndrome [2].
  • A case is presented in which a patient with a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma showed high gallium concentration in the segment with melanosis coli proximal to the obstruction [3].
  • The possibility exists that in the future a combination of HQ plus cystamine or BSO could be used to treat disorders such as melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation [4].
  • Since dicarboxylic acids are competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, and effective in treatment of hyperpigmentary disorders, such as chloasma and lentigo maligna, probably due to a cytotoxic effect on abnormal melanocytes, it is of interest to examine their effect on normal melanocytes in tissue culture [5].

Psychiatry related information on Melanosis


High impact information on Melanosis

  • We conducted association studies by using markers in candidate pigmentation genes and discovered four mutations in the melanocortin-1-receptor gene, Mc1r, that seem to be responsible for adaptive melanism in one population of lava-dwelling pocket mice [8].
  • To investigate the genetic basis, adaptive significance, and evolutionary history of melanistic variants in the Felidae, we mapped, cloned, and sequenced the cat homologs of two putative candidate genes for melanism (ASIP [agouti] and MC1R) and identified three independent deletions associated with dark coloration in three different felid species [9].
  • Morphological observation of the intestines also revealed melanosis, crypt abscesses and erosion, becoming more pronounced with length of exposure to the anthraquinone [10].
  • In controlled studies, topical azelaic acid demonstrated comparable anti-acne efficacy to topical tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide, erythromycin and oral tetracycline, while in patients with melasma azelaic acid proved at least as effective as topical hydroquinone [11].
  • The melasma patients presented statistically significant increased levels of LH (p less than 0.001) and lower levels of serum estradiol (p less than 0.025) than normal controls [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Melanosis

  • Thus, topical azelaic acid, employed either as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments, is likely to prove of value in the management of acne and several hyperpigmentary disorders, most notably melasma [11].
  • It is concluded that the pigmentation of chloasma is not due to increased plasma concentrations of immunoreactive beta-MSH [13].
  • The monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone should never be used in melasma therapy [14].
  • Treatment of melasma with Jessner's solution versus glycolic acid: a comparison of clinical efficacy and evaluation of the predictive ability of Wood's light examination [15].
  • Reversible melasma associated with tretinoin [16].

Biological context of Melanosis


Anatomical context of Melanosis


Gene context of Melanosis

  • AIMS: To compare the proliferative activity of intraepithelial melanocytes in primary acquired melanosis (PAM) without atypia and PAM with atypia by immunohistochemical staining for the Ki-67 antigen and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) [23].
  • The conserved molecular basis for the evolution of melanism in birds and several other vertebrates is probably related to low pleiotropic effects at the MC1R [24].
  • Reconstruction of the evolution of bananaquit MC1R alleles shows that melanism is a derived trait in this species [25].
  • MIB-1 and PC-10 immunostaining for the assessment of proliferative activity in primary acquired melanosis without and with atypia [23].
  • Eleven of 11 melanomas (95% confidence interval, 72% to 100%) and three of three lesions with primary acquired melanosis with atypia stained positively for NQO1 [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Melanosis


  1. Interleukin-6 gene ablation in a transgenic mouse model of malignant skin melanoma. von Felbert, V., Córdoba, F., Weissenberger, J., Vallan, C., Kato, M., Nakashima, I., Braathen, L.R., Weis, J. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Pituitary carcinoma mimics the ectopic adrenocorticotropin syndrome. Fachnie, J.D., Zafar, M.S., Mellinger, R.C., Chason, J.L., Kahkonen, D.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. The uptake of gallium 67 in colonic macrophages. Dance, D.R., Nash, A.G., McCready, V.R. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhancement of the depigmenting effect of hydroquinone by cystamine and buthionine sulfoximine. Bolognia, J.L., Sodi, S.A., Osber, M.P., Pawelek, J.M. Br. J. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of dicarboxylic acids on normal human melanocytes in dispersed tissue culture. Breathnach, A.S., Martin, B., Nazzaro Porro, M., Passi, S., Mann, P., Cooper, J., Morpurgo, G. Br. J. Dermatol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Esophageal melanosis, an endoscopic finding associated with squamous cell neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract, and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 in alcoholic Japanese men. Yokoyama, A., Omori, T., Yokoyama, T., Tanaka, Y., Mizukami, T., Matsushita, S., Higuchi, S., Takahashi, H., Maruyama, K., Ishii, H., Hibi, T. J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Neurocutaneous melanosis and psychosis: a case report. Azzoni, A., Argentieri, R., Raja, M. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The genetic basis of adaptive melanism in pocket mice. Nachman, M.W., Hoekstra, H.E., D'Agostino, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular genetics and evolution of melanism in the cat family. Eizirik, E., Yuhki, N., Johnson, W.E., Menotti-Raymond, M., Hannah, S.S., O'Brien, S.J. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell kinetic analysis of the mucosal epithelium and assay of ornithine decarboxylase activity during the process of 1-hydroxyanthraquinone-induced large bowel carcinogenesis in rats. Mori, H., Mori, Y., Tanaka, T., Yoshimi, N., Sugie, S., Kawamori, T., Narisawa, T. Carcinogenesis (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Azelaic acid. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in acne and hyperpigmentary skin disorders. Fitton, A., Goa, K.L. Drugs (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Endocrinologic profile of patients with idiopathic melasma. Pérez, M., Sánchez, J.L., Aguiló, F. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Chloasma, oral contraceptives, and plasma immunoreactive beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Smith, A.G., Shuster, S., Thody, A.J., Peberdy, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Usefulness of retinoic acid in the treatment of melasma. Pathak, M.A., Fitzpatrick, T.B., Kraus, E.W. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Treatment of melasma with Jessner's solution versus glycolic acid: a comparison of clinical efficacy and evaluation of the predictive ability of Wood's light examination. Lawrence, N., Cox, S.E., Brody, H.J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Reversible melasma associated with tretinoin. Burke, H., Carmichael, A.J. Br. J. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell growth and p53 expression in primary acquired melanosis and conjunctival melanoma. Seregard, S. J. Clin. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Pigmentosis tubae, a new entity: light and electron microscopic study. Herrera, G.A., Reimann, B.E., Greenberg, H.L., Miles, P.A. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Immunohistochemical detection of the c-met proto-oncogene product in the congenital melanocytic nevus of an infant with neurocutaneous melanosis. Takayama, H., Nagashima, Y., Hara, M., Takagi, H., Mori, M., Merlino, G., Nakazato, Y. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. A possible mechanism of action for azelaic acid in the human epidermis. Schallreuter, K.U., Wood, J.W. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Ocular surface impression cytology. McKelvie, P. Advances in anatomic pathology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. 4-Hexylresorcinol as inhibitor of shrimp melanosis: efficacy and residues studies; evaluation of possible toxic effect in a human intestinal in vitro model (Caco-2); preliminary safety assessment. Guandalini, E., Ioppolo, A., Mantovani, A., Stacchini, P., Giovannini, C. Food additives and contaminants. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. MIB-1 and PC-10 immunostaining for the assessment of proliferative activity in primary acquired melanosis without and with atypia. Chowers, I., Livni, N., Solomon, A., Zajicek, G., Frucht-Pery, J., Folberg, R., Pe'er, J. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. A window on the genetics of evolution: MC1R and plumage colouration in birds. Mundy, N.I. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Evolutionary genetics of the melanocortin-1 receptor in vertebrates. Mundy, N.I., Kelly, J., Theron, E., Hawkins, K. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunohistochemical localization of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in conjunctival melanomas and primary acquired melanosis. Wilson, M.W., Schelonka, L.P., Siegel, D., Meininger, A., Ross, D. Curr. Eye Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Topical tretinoin (retinoic acid) improves melasma. A vehicle-controlled, clinical trial. Griffiths, C.E., Finkel, L.J., Ditre, C.M., Hamilton, T.A., Ellis, C.N., Voorhees, J.J. Br. J. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. The combination of glycolic acid and hydroquinone or kojic acid for the treatment of melasma and related conditions. Garcia, A., Fulton, J.E. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin C iontophoresis in melasma. Huh, C.H., Seo, K.I., Park, J.Y., Lim, J.G., Eun, H.C., Park, K.C. Dermatology (Basel) (2003) [Pubmed]
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