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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of cell cycle and cyclins by 16alpha-hydroxyestrone in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

It has been suggested that alterations in estradiol (E(2)) metabolism, resulting in increased production of 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE(1)), is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of 16alpha-OHE(1)on DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. G(1) synchronized cells were treated with 1 to 25 nM 16alpha-OHE(1) for 24 and 48 h. [(3)H]Thymidine incorporation assay showed that 16alpha-OHE(1) caused an 8-fold increase in DNA synthesis compared with that of control cells, whereas E(2) caused a 4-fold increase. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression also demonstrated the potency of 16alpha-OHE(1) in stimulating cell growth. When G(1) synchronized cells were treated with 10 nM 16alpha-OHE(1) for 24 h, 62+/-3% of cells were in S phase compared with 14+/-3% and 52+/-2% of cells in the control and E(2)-treated groups respectively. In order to explore the role of 16alpha-OHE(1) in cell cycle regulation, we examined its effects on cyclins ( D1, E, A, B1), cyclin dependent kinases (Cdk4, Cdk2), and retinoblastoma protein (pRB) using Western and Northern blot analysis. Treatment of cells with 10 nM 16alpha-OHE(1) resulted in 4- and 3-fold increases in cyclin D1 and cyclin A, respectively, at the protein level. There was also a significant increase in pRB phosphorylation and Cdk2 activation. In addition, transient transfection assay using an estrogen response element-driven luciferase reporter vector showed a 15-fold increase in estrogen receptor-mediated transactivation compared with control. These results show that 16alpha-OHE(1) is a potent estrogen capable of accelerating cell cycle kinetics and stimulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins.[1]


  1. Regulation of cell cycle and cyclins by 16alpha-hydroxyestrone in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Lewis, J.S., Thomas, T.J., Klinge, C.M., Gallo, M.A., Thomas, T. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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