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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Influence of glucose on the sex ratio of bovine IVM/IVF embryos cultured in vitro.

The effect of glucose in the medium used during in vitro culture on the sex ratio of bovine blastocysts derived from in-vitro-matured and in-vitro-fertilized oocytes was evaluated. Oocytes were matured and inseminated with mixed sperm from three bulls and were cultured in vitro in modified synthetic oviducal fluid medium with 10% fetal calf serum, with or without glucose supplementation. The overall rate of cleaved embryos that developed to expanded blastocyst in the medium without glucose (27.0%) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than the percentage observed when embryos were cultured in medium with glucose (17.5%). Analysis of variance was performed to analyse the effect of glucose on the proportion of male embryos reaching the blastocyst stage (or arrested at the morula stage) during Days 7 to 10. Regardless of the presence or absence of glucose in the medium, significantly (P < 0.05) more male than female embryos were harvested as expanded blastocysts on Day 7 and on Day 8 of culture. On Days 9 plus 10 of culture, a sex ratio imbalance only occurred in the absence of glucose in the culture medium (P < 0.05). Glucose did not produce any significant effect on the sex ratio of the overall number of expanded blastocysts harvested by Day 10 of in vitro culture. However a significantly greater proportion of females (P < 0.01) were found among those embryos that developed only to the morulae stage after 10 days in vitro. These results show that glucose supplementation of culture media produces a preferential loss of female embryos during culture to the blastocyst stage.[1]


  1. Influence of glucose on the sex ratio of bovine IVM/IVF embryos cultured in vitro. Gutiérrez-Adán, A., Granados, J., Pintado, B., De La Fuente, J. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
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