The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Morula


High impact information on Morula


Biological context of Morula

  • These results suggest that c-myc function becomes particularly critical for preimplantation mouse embryos at the eight-cell/morula stage of development and establish that antisense DNA can be successfully applied as an approach toward elucidating the roles of specific genes in preimplantation mammalian embryo development [6].
  • For many years, SSEA-1 has been implicated in the development of mouse embryos as a functional carbohydrate epitope in cell-to-cell interaction during morula compaction [7].
  • As an initial confirmation of the in vivo relevance of the isolated fragment, a larger Rex-1 promoter fragment, also containing the octamer site, was able to promote expression of the bacterial lacZ gene in mouse embryos at the morula stage [8].
  • The high level of Xist transcription is maintained in non-epiblast cells culminating in X(P)-inactivation, whereas in X(P)0 embryos it is terminated by the blastocyst stage, probably as a result of counting the number of X chromosomes in a cell occurring at the morula/blastocyst stage [9].
  • The Sry and Zfy sequences were detected in about half the embryos; detection of the Sry and Zfy sequences corresponded exactly to the presence of the Y chromosome, except in one sample of male morula in which embryos may have been lost before the PCR amplification [10].

Anatomical context of Morula

  • ER mRNA was not detectable at the morula stage but reappeared at the blastocyst stage [11].
  • Between the 4-cell and late morula stages, syndecan is present intracellularly and on the external surfaces of the blastomeres but is absent from regions of cell-cell contact [12].
  • Therefore, the enzyme activity associated with 4-cell and morula stage embryos in vivo is derived from t-PA present in the oviduct lumen that binds the embryo, and not from protein produced from translation of embryonic mRNA [13].
  • Blastomeres in mouse embryos lacking pescadillo arrest at morula stages of development, the nucleoli fail to differentiate and accumulation of ribosomes is inhibited [14].
  • A transition from cytoplasmic to nuclear localization of activated MAPK occurs in morula/blastula stage embryo animal and marginal zones coinciding with the proposed onset of mesodermal competence [15].

Associations of Morula with chemical compounds

  • A monoclonal antibody has allowed the characterization of various forms of uvomorulin, a glycoprotein involved in the process of compaction of mouse morula [16].
  • In contrast, almost all (98%) two-cell embryos cultured with a modified (chimeric phosphorothioate/phosphodiester) antisense c-myc oligo (7.5 microM) exhibited developmental arrest at the eight-cell/morula stage, whereas no developmental arrest occurred following incubation with high concentrations of the modified sense complement (30 microM) [6].
  • In combination, lactate and pyruvate appeared to act synergistically and both the rate and level of development to the morula stage were unaffected by the absence of glucose [17].
  • LY294002 and wortmannin each caused a significant reduction in the proportion of embryos developing to the morula and blastocyst stages in vitro, reduced the number of cells within each blastocyst, and significantly increased the proportion of cells in blastocysts with fragmented nuclei [18].
  • Exposure to 80 mM lithium for 3 1/2 hr at the morula stage induced an accumulation of lithium into the embryos, concomitant with a decrease in intracellular sodium and potassium contents [19].

Gene context of Morula

  • AQP 3, 8, and 9 proteins demonstrated cell margin-associated staining starting at the 8-cell (AQP 9) or compacted morula (AQP 3 and 8) stages [20].
  • We have thus undertaken a detailed comparative expression analysis of Pkd2 and Pkd1 from the morula stage to adulthood [21].
  • Igf2 transcription was first detectable in two-cell embryos, and biallelic transcription was predominant up to the morula stage [22].
  • The data reveal moderately reduced expression of the Prps1, Hprt, and Pdha1 mRNAs in androgenetic eight-cell and morula stage embryos, but not in androgenetic blastocysts [23].
  • Pgk1 mRNA abundance was severely reduced in androgenones at the eight-cell and morula stages and remained reduced, but to a lesser degree, in androgenetic blastocysts [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Morula


  1. Temporally specific involvement of cell surface beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase during mouse embryo morula compaction. Bayna, E.M., Shaper, J.H., Shur, B.D. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Chilling sensitivity of carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos at different developmental stages in the presence or absence of cryoprotectants: work in progress. Dinnyés, A., Urbányi, B., Baranyai, B., Magyary, I. Theriogenology (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Possible role of interferon-tau on in vitro development of bovine embryos. Takahashi, M., Takahashi, H., Hamano, S., Watanabe, S., Inumaru, S., Geshi, M., Okuda, K., Yokomizo, Y., Okano, A. J. Reprod. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Position of regularly spaced single-stranded regions relative to 5-bromodeoxyuridine-sensitive sites in sea urchin morula DNA. Case, S.T., Baker, R.F. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide as an endogenous inducer of parietal endoderm differentiation. van de Stolpe, A., Karperien, M., Löwik, C.W., Jüppner, H., Segre, G.V., Abou-Samra, A.B., de Laat, S.W., Defize, L.H. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Antisense c-myc effects on preimplantation mouse embryo development. Paria, B.C., Dey, S.K., Andrews, G.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Normal embryonic and germ cell development in mice lacking alpha 1,3-fucosyltransferase IX (Fut9) which show disappearance of stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Kudo, T., Kaneko, M., Iwasaki, H., Togayachi, A., Nishihara, S., Abe, K., Narimatsu, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. An octamer motif contributes to the expression of the retinoic acid-regulated zinc finger gene Rex-1 (Zfp-42) in F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Hosler, B.A., Rogers, M.B., Kozak, C.A., Gudas, L.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Control of Xist expression for imprinted and random X chromosome inactivation in mice. Matsui, J., Goto, Y., Takagi, N. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Sexing of mouse preimplantation embryos by detection of Y chromosome-specific sequences using polymerase chain reaction. Kunieda, T., Xian, M., Kobayashi, E., Imamichi, T., Moriwaki, K., Toyoda, Y. Biol. Reprod. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor genes are expressed differentially in mouse embryos during preimplantation development. Hou, Q., Gorski, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of syndecan, a putative low affinity fibroblast growth factor receptor, in the early mouse embryo. Sutherland, A.E., Sanderson, R.D., Mayes, M., Seibert, M., Calarco, P.G., Bernfield, M., Damsky, C.H. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Preimplantation mouse embryos express a cell surface receptor for tissue-plasminogen activator. Carroll, P.M., Richards, W.G., Darrow, A.L., Wells, J.M., Strickland, S. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Pescadillo is essential for nucleolar assembly, ribosome biogenesis, and mammalian cell proliferation. Lerch-Gaggl, A., Haque, J., Li, J., Ning, G., Traktman, P., Duncan, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of activated MAP kinase in Xenopus laevis embryos: evaluating the roles of FGF and other signaling pathways in early induction and patterning. Curran, K.L., Grainger, R.M. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Uvomorulin: a nonintegral membrane protein of early mouse embryo. Peyriéras, N., Hyafil, F., Louvard, D., Ploegh, H.L., Jacob, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. The roles of pyruvate, lactate and glucose during preimplantation development of embryos from F1 hybrid mice in vitro. Brown, J.J., Whittingham, D.G. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Trophic signals acting via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase are required for normal pre-implantation mouse embryo development. Lu, D.P., Chandrakanthan, V., Cahana, A., Ishii, S., O'Neill, C. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of lithium on ionic balance and polyphosphoinositide metabolism during larval vegetalization of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Ciapa, B., Maggio, K. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Aquaporin proteins in murine trophectoderm mediate transepithelial water movements during cavitation. Barcroft, L.C., Offenberg, H., Thomsen, P., Watson, A.J. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Distinct and common developmental expression patterns of the murine Pkd2 and Pkd1 genes. Guillaume, R., Trudel, M. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Allele-specific detection of nascent transcripts by fluorescence in situ hybridization reveals temporal and culture-induced changes in Igf2 imprinting during pre-implantation mouse development. Ohno, M., Aoki, N., Sasaki, H. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of X-linked genes in androgenetic, gynogenetic, and normal mouse preimplantation embryos. Latham, K.E., Rambhatla, L. Dev. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of the EMILIN-1 gene during mouse development. Braghetta, P., Ferrari, A., de Gemmis, P., Zanetti, M., Volpin, D., Bonaldo, P., Bressan, G.M. Matrix Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects on in vitro embryo development and intracellular glutathione content of the presence of thiol compounds during maturation of prepubertal goat oocytes. Rodríguez-González, E., López-Bejar, M., Mertens, M.J., Paramio, M.T. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Nuclear transfer of adult and genetically modified fetal cells of the rat. Hayes, E., Galea, S., Verkuylen, A., Pera, M., Morrison, J., Lacham-Kaplan, O., Trounson, A. Physiol. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities