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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Oocytes

  • Mice lacking either Ahr or the pro-apoptotic protein Bax have an increased number of primordial follicles, and these mutant oocytes are resistant to PAH toxicity [1].
  • Expression of the mutant GluR delta2(Lc) protein in Xenopus oocytes confirmed these results, demonstrating that Lc is inherited as a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from a gain-of-function mutation in a glutamate receptor gene [2].
  • Sperm function, which was judged normal by means of standard seminal analysis and mucus penetration, was confirmed by normal IVF in unexplained infertility: 63% (37/59) per oocyte and 90% (18/20) per couple [3].
  • Uptake of the cytostatic drug [3H]-chlorambucil-taurocholate (S2676) was measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with total messenger RNA (mRNA) from the carcinomas or peritumor tissue or with complementary RNA encoding the NTCP or the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) of human liver [4].
  • During studies of the activation and inactivation of the cyclin B-p34cdc2 protein kinase (MPF) in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs, we found that a bacterially expressed fusion protein between the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein and the Xenopus c-mos protein kinase (malE-mos) activated a 42 kDa MAP kinase [5].

Psychiatry related information on Oocytes


High impact information on Oocytes

  • Evidence that phosphoinositide signaling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered [9].
  • Prior to reaching the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte, oskar mRNA is translationally silenced by Bruno binding to BREs in the 3' untranslated region [10].
  • These data also provide unexpected links between oocyte metabolism, CaMKII, and caspase-2 [11].
  • We show that pentose-phosphate-pathway generation of NADPH is critical for oocyte survival and that the target of this regulation is caspase-2, previously shown to be required for oocyte death in mice [11].
  • PAR-1 also excludes Bazooka from the posterior of the oocyte, and disruption of this regulation causes anterior-posterior polarity defects [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Oocytes


Biological context of Oocytes


Anatomical context of Oocytes

  • We have cloned analogs of pICln from rat heart and Xenopus ovary. pICln was identified as an abundant soluble cytosolic protein (approximately 40 kd) that does not immunolocalize with the plasma membrane. pICln was found in epithelial and cardiac cells, brain, and Xenopus oocytes, forming complexes with soluble actin and other cytosolic proteins [23].
  • SED1 binds specifically to the zona pellucida of unfertilized oocytes, but not to the zona of fertilized eggs [24].
  • We propose that microtubule-dependent Exuperantia-bicoid mRNA complex formation in the nurse cell cytoplasm allows anterior-specific transport on a grossly nonpolar oocyte microtubule network [25].
  • The anti-influenza virus drug amantadine hydrochloride significantly attenuated the inward current induced by hyperpolarization of oocyte membranes [26].
  • Here we present experimental evidence demonstrating that activation of zeta PKC is not only necessary but also sufficient by itself to activate maturation in oocytes and to produce deregulation of growth control in mouse fibroblasts [27].

Associations of Oocytes with chemical compounds

  • The ability of the maturation-promoting factor (Mpf) to provoke Gvbd when injected into recipient oocytes was found to be dependent upon whether the oocytes had been exposed to cholera toxin alone or to toxin and progesterone [28].
  • Analysis of the mutated and wild-type alleles in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed the predicted effect of the mutation, a decrease in the amplitude of GABA-activated currents [29].
  • Xenopus oocytes injected with alpha 9 cRNA express a homomeric receptor-channel complex that is activated by acetylcholine [30].
  • Effects of cycloheximide on the "autocatalytic" nature of the maturation promoting factor (MPF) in oocytes of Xenopus laevis [31].
  • We therefore performed a controlled, open trial in which treatment with buserelin, an agonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone citrate and HMG in 44 consecutive women in whom no oocytes or only one had been produced by standard treatment with clomiphene and HMG [32].

Gene context of Oocytes

  • We report the cloning and sequencing of staufen and show that staufen protein is one of the first molecules to localize to the posterior pole of the oocyte, perhaps in association with oskar RNA [33].
  • The TGF alpha-like ligand Gurken signals from the oocyte to the receptor in the overlying somatic follicle cells [34].
  • We show here that clam oocytes and embryos contain a cdc2 protein kinase [35].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that BicD encodes a cytoskeleton-like protein involved in transporting or anchoring the nanos morphogen within the oocyte cytoplasm [36].
  • Here, we report that a Drosophila PAR-1 homolog localizes to the posterior of the oocyte with oskar mRNA [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oocytes


  1. Eggs in the balance. Matzuk, M.M. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Neurodegeneration in Lurcher mice caused by mutation in delta2 glutamate receptor gene. Zuo, J., De Jager, P.L., Takahashi, K.A., Jiang, W., Linden, D.J., Heintz, N. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Endometriosis and ovulatory disorder: reduced fertilisation in vitro compared with tubal and unexplained infertility. Wardle, P.G., Mitchell, J.D., McLaughlin, E.A., Ray, B.D., McDermott, A., Hull, M.G. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Chlorambucil-taurocholate is transported by bile acid carriers expressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Kullak-Ublick, G.A., Glasa, J., Böker, C., Oswald, M., Grützner, U., Hagenbuch, B., Stieger, B., Meier, P.J., Beuers, U., Kramer, W., Wess, G., Paumgartner, G. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but not MPF, in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs. Nebreda, A.R., Hunt, T. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Long-term effects of postovulatory aging of mouse oocytes on offspring: a two-generational study. Tarín, J.J., Pérez-Albalá, S., Aguilar, A., Miñarro, J., Hermenegildo, C., Cano, A. Biol. Reprod. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Oogenesis in Xenopus laevis (Daudin). IV. Effects of gonadotropin, estrogen and starvation on endocytosis in developing oocytes. Holland, C.A., Dumont, J.N. Cell Tissue Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Estrogenic upregulation of DNA polymerase beta in oocytes of preovulatory ovine follicles. Murdoch, W.J., Van Kirk, E.A. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Calcium at fertilization and in early development. Whitaker, M. Physiol. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Bruno acts as a dual repressor of oskar translation, promoting mRNA oligomerization and formation of silencing particles. Chekulaeva, M., Hentze, M.W., Ephrussi, A. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Metabolic regulation of oocyte cell death through the CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of caspase-2. Nutt, L.K., Margolis, S.S., Jensen, M., Herman, C.E., Dunphy, W.G., Rathmell, J.C., Kornbluth, S. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. Benton, R., St Johnston, D. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Involvement of the GTP binding protein Rho in constitutive endocytosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Schmalzing, G., Richter, H.P., Hansen, A., Schwarz, W., Just, I., Aktories, K. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of type II beta cAMP-dependent protein kinase by cyclin B/p34cdc2 kinase impairs its binding to microtubule-associated protein 2. Keryer, G., Luo, Z., Cavadore, J.C., Erlichman, J., Bornens, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Phosphorylation and protein synthetic events in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with pp60v-src. Spivack, J.G., Maller, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of rat mRNA coding for hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase in Xenopus oocytes. Smith, A.A., Brooker, T., Brooker, G. FASEB J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Merlin, the Drosophila homologue of neurofibromatosis-2, is specifically required in posterior follicle cells for axis formation in the oocyte. MacDougall, N., Lad, Y., Wilkie, G.S., Francis-Lang, H., Sullivan, W., Davis, I. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Translation of Xenopus liver messenger RNA in Xenopus oocytes: vitellogenin synthesis and conversion to yolk platelet proteins. Berridge, M.V., Lane, C.D. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Mater, a maternal effect gene required for early embryonic development in mice. Tong, Z.B., Gold, L., Pfeifer, K.E., Dorward, H., Lee, E., Bondy, C.A., Dean, J., Nelson, L.M. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. CTCF maintains differential methylation at the Igf2/H19 locus. Schoenherr, C.J., Levorse, J.M., Tilghman, S.M. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. cdc25 is a specific tyrosine phosphatase that directly activates p34cdc2. Gautier, J., Solomon, M.J., Booher, R.N., Bazan, J.F., Kirschner, M.W. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification of MPF from starfish: identification as the H1 histone kinase p34cdc2 and a possible mechanism for its periodic activation. Labbe, J.C., Picard, A., Peaucellier, G., Cavadore, J.C., Nurse, P., Doree, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular characterization of a swelling-induced chloride conductance regulatory protein, pICln. Krapivinsky, G.B., Ackerman, M.J., Gordon, E.A., Krapivinsky, L.D., Clapham, D.E. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of mouse sperm SED1, a bimotif EGF repeat and discoidin-domain protein involved in sperm-egg binding. Ensslin, M.A., Shur, B.D. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. In vivo analysis of Drosophila bicoid mRNA localization reveals a novel microtubule-dependent axis specification pathway. Cha, B.J., Koppetsch, B.S., Theurkauf, W.E. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Influenza virus M2 protein has ion channel activity. Pinto, L.H., Holsinger, L.J., Lamb, R.A. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Protein kinase C zeta isoform is critical for mitogenic signal transduction. Berra, E., Diaz-Meco, M.T., Dominguez, I., Municio, M.M., Sanz, L., Lozano, J., Chapkin, R.S., Moscat, J. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Progesterone-induced meiosis in Xenopus laevis oocytes: a role for cAMP at the "maturation-promoting factor" level. Schorderet-Slatkine, S., Schorderet, M., Boquet, P., Godeau, F., Baulieu, E.E. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. First genetic evidence of GABA(A) receptor dysfunction in epilepsy: a mutation in the gamma2-subunit gene. Baulac, S., Huberfeld, G., Gourfinkel-An, I., Mitropoulou, G., Beranger, A., Prud'homme, J.F., Baulac, M., Brice, A., Bruzzone, R., LeGuern, E. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Alpha 9: an acetylcholine receptor with novel pharmacological properties expressed in rat cochlear hair cells. Elgoyhen, A.B., Johnson, D.S., Boulter, J., Vetter, D.E., Heinemann, S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of cycloheximide on the "autocatalytic" nature of the maturation promoting factor (MPF) in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. Drury, K.C., Schorderet-Slatkine, S. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. A controlled study of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (buserelin) for the induction of folliculogenesis before in vitro fertilization. MacLachlan, V., Besanko, M., O'Shea, F., Wade, H., Wood, C., Trounson, A., Healy, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Staufen, a gene required to localize maternal RNAs in the Drosophila egg. St Johnston, D., Beuchle, D., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. An autoregulatory cascade of EGF receptor signaling patterns the Drosophila egg. Wasserman, J.D., Freeman, M. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Cdc2 protein kinase is complexed with both cyclin A and B: evidence for proteolytic inactivation of MPF. Draetta, G., Luca, F., Westendorf, J., Brizuela, L., Ruderman, J., Beach, D. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Structure of the Drosophila BicaudalD protein and its role in localizing the the posterior determinant nanos. Wharton, R.P., Struhl, G. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. The Drosophila homolog of C. elegans PAR-1 organizes the oocyte cytoskeleton and directs oskar mRNA localization to the posterior pole. Shulman, J.M., Benton, R., St Johnston, D. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Nuclear protein migration involves two steps: rapid binding at the nuclear envelope followed by slower translocation through nuclear pores. Richardson, W.D., Mills, A.D., Dilworth, S.M., Laskey, R.A., Dingwall, C. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Changes of nucleosome frequency in nucleolar and non-nucleolar chromatin as a function of transcription: an electron microscopic study. Scheer, U. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  40. Transcription, processing and nuclear transport of a B1 Alu RNA species complementary to an intron of the murine alpha-fetoprotein gene. Adeniyi-Jones, S., Zasloff, M. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  41. Mutations in the channel domain alter desensitization of a neuronal nicotinic receptor. Revah, F., Bertrand, D., Galzi, J.L., Devillers-Thiéry, A., Mulle, C., Hussy, N., Bertrand, S., Ballivet, M., Changeux, J.P. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  42. Glucose/galactose malabsorption caused by a defect in the Na+/glucose cotransporter. Turk, E., Zabel, B., Mundlos, S., Dyer, J., Wright, E.M. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
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