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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

CXCR4/CCR5 down-modulation and chemotaxis are regulated by the proteasome pathway.

Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in host immune surveillance and are important mediators of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and inflammatory response. The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, which act as co-receptors along with CD4 for HIV docking and entry, are down-modulated by their respective ligands, MIP-1beta/SDF-1alpha or by the HIV envelope protein, gp120. We have studied the role of the proteasome pathway in the down-regulation of these receptors. Using the yeast and mammalian two-hybrid systems, we observed that the CCR5 receptor is constitutively associated with the zeta subunit of proteasome. Immunoprecipitation studies in CCR5 L1.2 cells revealed that this association was increased with MIP-1beta stimulation. The proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and epoxomicin, attenuated MIP-1beta induced CCR5 down-modulation as detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy. The proteasome inhibitors also inhibited the SDF-1alpha and gp120 protein-induced down-modulation of the CXCR4 receptor in Jurkat cells. However, the inhibitors had no significant effect on the gp120-induced internalization of the CD4 receptor. These inhibitors also blocked cognate ligand-mediated chemotaxis but had no effect on SDF-1alpha-induced p44/42 MAP kinase or MIP-1beta- induced p38 kinase activities, thus indicating differential effects of the inhibitors on signaling mediated by these receptors. These results indicate that the CCR5 and CXCR4 receptor down-modulation mechanism and chemotaxis mediated by these receptors are dependent upon proteasome activity.[1]


  1. CXCR4/CCR5 down-modulation and chemotaxis are regulated by the proteasome pathway. Fernandis, A.Z., Cherla, R.P., Chernock, R.D., Ganju, R.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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